Key to the Species of Aridarum


Based on Wong, Low & Boyce, 2014

Click on 📌 to highlight and compare characteristics.
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1A. Staminate flowers each comprised of one stamenStamen: The pollen-producing reproductive organ of a flower. ; thecaeThecae: One of the lobes of an anther in which pollen is produced. on the proximal side of the flower (with respect to spadixSpadix: A spike of minute flowers closely arranged around a fleshy axis and typically enclosed in a spathe. axis) .. 2
2A. Connective not expanded, individual staminate flowers horseshoe-shaped; staminodeStaminode: A sterile or abortive stamen, frequently resembling a stamen without its anther. s of interstice horseshoeshaped, expanding laterally post pistilPistil: The female reproductive part of a flower. late anthesisAnthesis: The period during which pollen is presented and/or the stigma is receptive. ; spatheSpathe: A large sheathing bract enclosing the flower cluster. limb caducousCaducous: Easily detached and shed at an early stage. , falling by lesion from the lower, persistentPersistent: Remaining attached to the plant beyond the usual time of falling. spatheSpathe: A large sheathing bract enclosing the flower cluster. ; primary lateral veinVein: Venation types: A. midrib; B. primary lateral veins; C. interprimaray veins; D. secondary veins; E. collective veins; F. tertiary veins; G. basal ribs; H. basal veins. s not conspicuously raised .. 3
3A. Leaf blades quilted, abaxialAbaxial: Facing away from the stem of a plant (especially denoting the lower surface of a leaf). ly with conspicuous pellucidPellucid: Translucently clear. interprimary veinVein: Venation types: A. midrib; B. primary lateral veins; C. interprimaray veins; D. secondary veins; E. collective veins; F. tertiary veins; G. basal ribs; H. basal veins. s; adaxially with primary lateral veinVein: Venation types: A. midrib; B. primary lateral veins; C. interprimaray veins; D. secondary veins; E. collective veins; F. tertiary veins; G. basal ribs; H. basal veins. s impressed; petiolePetiole: Leaf stem. s scabrousScabrous: Rough and covered with, or as if with, scabs. ; staminate flowers completely verruculose; appendixAppendix: Sterile appendage at the end of a spadix. staminodeStaminode: A sterile or abortive stamen, frequently resembling a stamen without its anther. s deeply and irregularly fissured. Central northern Schwaner Mountains (Melawi and Sanggau, Kalimantan Barat), sandstones .. 📌Aridarum rostratum
3B. Leaf blades smooth, abaxialAbaxial: Facing away from the stem of a plant (especially denoting the lower surface of a leaf). ly without pellucidPellucid: Translucently clear. interprimary veinVein: Venation types: A. midrib; B. primary lateral veins; C. interprimaray veins; D. secondary veins; E. collective veins; F. tertiary veins; G. basal ribs; H. basal veins. s; primary lateral veinVein: Venation types: A. midrib; B. primary lateral veins; C. interprimaray veins; D. secondary veins; E. collective veins; F. tertiary veins; G. basal ribs; H. basal veins. s barely visible; petiolePetiole: Leaf stem. s smooth; staminate flowers glabrousGlabrous: Smooth. Free from hair or down. , or with only connective having a verruculose margin .. 4
4A. ThecaeThecae: One of the lobes of an anther in which pollen is produced. horns stout. Gunung Sepangin (Putussibau, Kalimantan Barat), granites .. 📌Aridarum uncum
4B. ThecaeThecae: One of the lobes of an anther in which pollen is produced. horns very slender .. 5
5A. Leaf blades adaxially slightly velvety very dark green; spatheSpathe: A large sheathing bract enclosing the flower cluster. ca. 5.5 cm long; spadixSpadix: A spike of minute flowers closely arranged around a fleshy axis and typically enclosed in a spathe. ca. 2.5 cm long; interpistilPistil: The female reproductive part of a flower. lar staminodeStaminode: A sterile or abortive stamen, frequently resembling a stamen without its anther. s absent; interstice staminodeStaminode: A sterile or abortive stamen, frequently resembling a stamen without its anther. s rather weakly differentiated from the staminate flowers; appendixAppendix: Sterile appendage at the end of a spadix. staminodeStaminode: A sterile or abortive stamen, frequently resembling a stamen without its anther. s lacking glands. Western Muller Mountains, Nanga Suruk (Kapuas Hulu, Kalimantan Barat), volcanics .. 📌Aridarum surukense
5B. Leaf blades semi-glossy medium to dark green; spatheSpathe: A large sheathing bract enclosing the flower cluster. ca. 7 cm long; spadixSpadix: A spike of minute flowers closely arranged around a fleshy axis and typically enclosed in a spathe. 3.5-4 cm long; interpistilPistil: The female reproductive part of a flower. lar staminodeStaminode: A sterile or abortive stamen, frequently resembling a stamen without its anther. s present at the base of the spadixSpadix: A spike of minute flowers closely arranged around a fleshy axis and typically enclosed in a spathe. ; interstice staminodeStaminode: A sterile or abortive stamen, frequently resembling a stamen without its anther. s well differentiated from the staminate flowers; appendixAppendix: Sterile appendage at the end of a spadix. staminodeStaminode: A sterile or abortive stamen, frequently resembling a stamen without its anther. s with conspicuous pellucidPellucid: Translucently clear. glands .. 6
6A. Staminate flowers in ca. 3 rows, white. Nanga Taman (Kalimantan Barat), sandstones .. 📌Aridarum hippocrepis
6B. Staminate flowers in ca. 6 rows, pale orange. Schwaner Mountains, Gunung Alat (Sintang, Kalimantan Barat), metamorphics .. 📌Aridarum alatense
2B. Connective expanded on the distal side (with respect to the spadixSpadix: A spike of minute flowers closely arranged around a fleshy axis and typically enclosed in a spathe. axis) into a rim; staminodeStaminode: A sterile or abortive stamen, frequently resembling a stamen without its anther. s of interstice (if present) never horseshoe-shaped and never expanding; spatheSpathe: A large sheathing bract enclosing the flower cluster. limb deliquescing acroscopically from the junction with the lower persistentPersistent: Remaining attached to the plant beyond the usual time of falling. part; leaf blades with the primary lateral veinVein: Venation types: A. midrib; B. primary lateral veins; C. interprimaray veins; D. secondary veins; E. collective veins; F. tertiary veins; G. basal ribs; H. basal veins. s raised conspicuously adaxially .. 7
7A. PistilPistil: The female reproductive part of a flower. late and staminate flower zones separated by a naked interstice equalling the staminate flower zone in length; staminodeStaminode: A sterile or abortive stamen, frequently resembling a stamen without its anther. s few, cylindricclavateClavate: Club-shaped; thicker at the apex than at the base. , at base of staminate flower zone; stamenStamen: The pollen-producing reproductive organ of a flower. s and appendixAppendix: Sterile appendage at the end of a spadix. staminodeStaminode: A sterile or abortive stamen, frequently resembling a stamen without its anther. s verrucate. Loreh (Malinau Selatan, Kalimantan Utara), shales .. 📌Aridarum kazuyae
7B. PistilPistil: The female reproductive part of a flower. late and staminate flower zones not separated by a naked interstice, or if interstice present then very short; staminodeStaminode: A sterile or abortive stamen, frequently resembling a stamen without its anther. s at base of staminate zone absent or globose; stamenStamen: The pollen-producing reproductive organ of a flower. s and appendixAppendix: Sterile appendage at the end of a spadix. staminodeStaminode: A sterile or abortive stamen, frequently resembling a stamen without its anther. s smooth .. 8
8A. Leaf blades linearLinear: -lanceolateLanceolate: , adaxially with strong marginal veinVein: Venation types: A. midrib; B. primary lateral veins; C. interprimaray veins; D. secondary veins; E. collective veins; F. tertiary veins; G. basal ribs; H. basal veins. s; pistilPistil: The female reproductive part of a flower. late flower zone with a few vermiform staminodeStaminode: A sterile or abortive stamen, frequently resembling a stamen without its anther. s at the base. Muller Range (Kalimantan Tengah), volcanics .. 📌Aridarum minimum
8B. Leaf blades not linearLinear: -lanceolateLanceolate: ; pistilPistil: The female reproductive part of a flower. late flower zone with none or prismatic staminodeStaminode: A sterile or abortive stamen, frequently resembling a stamen without its anther. s at the base .. 9
9A. StamenStamen: The pollen-producing reproductive organ of a flower. connective convex, distal rim rounded, smooth or slightly sulcateSulcate: Furrowed; grooved. ; staminodeStaminode: A sterile or abortive stamen, frequently resembling a stamen without its anther. s at base of staminate flower zone absent or closely resembling staminate flowers; thecaeThecae: One of the lobes of an anther in which pollen is produced. horns long, stiff, arching. Gunung Rian, (Tana Tidung, Kalimantan Utara), shales .. 📌Aridarum orientale
9B. StamenStamen: The pollen-producing reproductive organ of a flower. connective concave, distal rim serrate-dentate; staminodeStaminode: A sterile or abortive stamen, frequently resembling a stamen without its anther. s at base of staminate flower zone globose; thecaeThecae: One of the lobes of an anther in which pollen is produced. horns rather soft, short, straight. Hose Mountains (Kapit, C. Sarawak), limestones .. 📌Aridarum burttii
1B. Staminate flowers each comprised of two stamenStamen: The pollen-producing reproductive organ of a flower. s; thecaeThecae: One of the lobes of an anther in which pollen is produced. on the longitudinal ends, or the inner face of each antherAnther: The part of a stamen that contains the pollen. of the stamenStamen: The pollen-producing reproductive organ of a flower. pair .. 10
10A. ThecaeThecae: One of the lobes of an anther in which pollen is produced. on each end of each antherAnther: The part of a stamen that contains the pollen. 11
11A. Horns of thecaeThecae: One of the lobes of an anther in which pollen is produced. very long and thin, with the tips overlapping; stamenStamen: The pollen-producing reproductive organ of a flower. connective not excavated .. 12
12A. Leaf blades linearLinear: -lanceolateLanceolate: , stiffly coriaceousCoriaceous: Resembling or having the texture of leather. , up to 10 cm long 3-4.5 mm wide; stems very slender (ca. 3-4 mm diam.), trailing, clothed in netted persistentPersistent: Remaining attached to the plant beyond the usual time of falling. fibers; spatheSpathe: A large sheathing bract enclosing the flower cluster. ca. 2 cm long; spadixSpadix: A spike of minute flowers closely arranged around a fleshy axis and typically enclosed in a spathe. ca. 1.5 cm long; staminate flower connective umbonate. Scattered localities in Sri Aman & Sarikei (W. Sarawak), shales .. 📌Aridarum montanum
12B. Leaf blades ellipticElliptic: , softly coriaceousCoriaceous: Resembling or having the texture of leather. , up to 22 cm long 3 5 cm wide; stems stout. (ca. 2.5 cm diam.), erect, naked; spatheSpathe: A large sheathing bract enclosing the flower cluster. ca. 9 cm long; spadixSpadix: A spike of minute flowers closely arranged around a fleshy axis and typically enclosed in a spathe. ca. 4.5 cm long; staminate flower connective flat with a shallow central longitudinal groove. Nanga Taman (Kalimantan Barat) & Kudangan (Kalimantan Tengah), granites .. 📌Aridarum zygosetum
11B. Horns of antherAnther: The part of a stamen that contains the pollen. thecaeThecae: One of the lobes of an anther in which pollen is produced. short and stubby; stamenStamen: The pollen-producing reproductive organ of a flower. connective excavated or not .. 13
13A. StamenStamen: The pollen-producing reproductive organ of a flower. connective deeply excavated; thecaeThecae: One of the lobes of an anther in which pollen is produced. horns slender with a narrow base .. 14
14A. ThecaeThecae: One of the lobes of an anther in which pollen is produced. horns blunt, peg-like, erect; interstice staminodeStaminode: A sterile or abortive stamen, frequently resembling a stamen without its anther. s oblongOblong: in plan outline, with a deep, oblongOblong: excavation filled at pistilPistil: The female reproductive part of a flower. late anthesisAnthesis: The period during which pollen is presented and/or the stigma is receptive. with a yellowish sticky substance. Riam Marthin Billa (Malinau Selatan, Kalimantan Utara), very hard shales .. 📌Aridarum hebe
14B. ThecaeThecae: One of the lobes of an anther in which pollen is produced. horns pointed, triangular, directed into the cavity of the connective; interstive staminodeStaminode: A sterile or abortive stamen, frequently resembling a stamen without its anther. s 6 circular in plan outline, with an empty circular excavation. W Sarawak .. 15
15A. Leaf arrangement strictly distichous. Matang (NW Sarawak), sandstones and granodiorite .. 📌Aridarum borneense
15B. Leaf arrangement not so .. 16
16A. Leaf blade very stiffly coriaceousCoriaceous: Resembling or having the texture of leather. , glossy deep green adaxially when fresh; stigmaStigma: The receptive tip of a carpel, or of several fused carpels, in the gynoecium of a flower. 2/3 of ovaryOvary: The part of the pistil which holds the ovule(s) and is located above or below or at the point of connection with the base of the petals and sepals. diameter; thecaeThecae: One of the lobes of an anther in which pollen is produced. horns very short, rounded at the end. Gunung Gaharu & Batu Balau ('Bukit Lingga') (Sri Aman-SW Sarawak), alkaline volcanics .. 📌Aridarum crassum
16B. Leaf blade rubbery-coriaceousCoriaceous: Resembling or having the texture of leather. , matte medium green adaxially when fresh; stigmaStigma: The receptive tip of a carpel, or of several fused carpels, in the gynoecium of a flower. as wide as ovaryOvary: The part of the pistil which holds the ovule(s) and is located above or below or at the point of connection with the base of the petals and sepals. ; thecaeThecae: One of the lobes of an anther in which pollen is produced. horns long, pointed at the end. Bako & Santubong (NW Sarawak), sandstones .. 📌Aridarum nicolsonii
13B. StamenStamen: The pollen-producing reproductive organ of a flower. connective not excavated; thecaeThecae: One of the lobes of an anther in which pollen is produced. horns stout, their bases occupying the whole upper surface of the antherAnther: The part of a stamen that contains the pollen. .. 17
17A. Plants 10-20 cm tall; leaves erect, 9-17 cm long, leaf blades lanceolateLanceolate: ellipticElliptic: ; pedunclePeduncle: Flower stem. 6-9 cm long; spatheSpathe: A large sheathing bract enclosing the flower cluster. 2.5-4 cm long; spadixSpadix: A spike of minute flowers closely arranged around a fleshy axis and typically enclosed in a spathe. 1- 1.5 cm long. Gunung Niut (NW Kalimantan Barat), basalBasal: Forming or belonging to a bottom layer or base. ts .. 📌Aridarum incavatum
17B. Plants 2 cm tall; leaves appressed, ca. 3 cm long, leaf blades oblanceolateLanceolate: ; pedunclePeduncle: Flower stem. ca. 5 mm long; spatheSpathe: A large sheathing bract enclosing the flower cluster. ca. 1.5 cm long; spadixSpadix: A spike of minute flowers closely arranged around a fleshy axis and typically enclosed in a spathe. ca. 4.5 mm long. Batang Balleh (Kapit - C. Sarawak), shales .. 📌Aridarum pendek
10B. ThecaeThecae: One of the lobes of an anther in which pollen is produced. on the inner face of each member of the stamenStamen: The pollen-producing reproductive organ of a flower. pair .. 18
18A. Staminate flowers pubescentPubescent: With a hairy surface. .. 19
19A. Leaf blades very stiff, sharply Vshaped in cross-section with the tip acicular (sharply pointed); mid-rib and marginal veinVein: Venation types: A. midrib; B. primary lateral veins; C. interprimaray veins; D. secondary veins; E. collective veins; F. tertiary veins; G. basal ribs; H. basal veins. s equally prominent; stems very short, naked. Similaju (Sarawak: Bintulu), lowland sandstones .. 📌Aridarum velutandrum
19B. Leaf blades softly leathery, almost flat with undulate-crispulate margins, tip provided with a tubular mucro; mid-rib and marginal veinVein: Venation types: A. midrib; B. primary lateral veins; C. interprimaray veins; D. secondary veins; E. collective veins; F. tertiary veins; G. basal ribs; H. basal veins. s not equally prominent, marginal veinVein: Venation types: A. midrib; B. primary lateral veins; C. interprimaray veins; D. secondary veins; E. collective veins; F. tertiary veins; G. basal ribs; H. basal veins. s almost invisible; fibrous-netted cataphyllCataphyll: A reduced, small leaf. Usually used to describe a modified leaf which lacks a blade and in appearance corresponds to a petiole sheath. , liguleLigule: A narrow strap-shaped part of a plant, especially a membranous scale on the inner side of the leaf sheath at its junction with the blade. , and leaf base remnants. Loagan Bunut (Sarawak: Miri-Marudi), upper hill forest sandstones .. 📌Aridarum orestum
18B. Staminate flowers glabrousGlabrous: Smooth. Free from hair or down. .. 20
20A. Horns of thecaeThecae: One of the lobes of an anther in which pollen is produced. shorter than width of stamenStamen: The pollen-producing reproductive organ of a flower. . E Sarawak and Brunei, mainly sandstones .. 📌Aridarum caulescens
20B. Horns of thecaeThecae: One of the lobes of an anther in which pollen is produced. longer than width of stamenStamen: The pollen-producing reproductive organ of a flower. . NE Sarawak, shales .. 📌Aridarum purseglovei
 


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