Key to the Genera of Araceae

The following interactive key is based on the key in The Genera of Araceae ( Mayo, Bogner and Boyce, 1997 ).

Click on 📌 to highlight and compare characteristics.
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1A. Plants free-floating aquatics; leaves rosulate, hairy; flowers unisexual, naked; inflorescence with a single female flower and a few male flowers . 105. 📌Pistia
1B. Plants terrestrial or helophyteHelophyte: A bog plant; especially a perennial marsh plant having its overwintering buds under water. s, climbing hemiepiphyteEpiphyte: A plant that grows harmlessly upon another plant and derives its moisture and nutrients from the air, rain, and sometimes from debris accumulating around it. s, epiphyteEpiphyte: A plant that grows harmlessly upon another plant and derives its moisture and nutrients from the air, rain, and sometimes from debris accumulating around it. s or lithophyteLithophyte: A plant that grows on bare rock or stone. s or other, but never floating
2A. Leaves not differentiated into petiolePetiole: Leaf stem. and blade, primary venationVenation: The arrangement of veins in the leaf. strictly parallelParallel: Parallel Venation. ; inflorescence borne on a culm-like axis
3A. Leaves ensiformEnsiform: Shaped like a sword blade; long and narrow with sharp edges and a pointed tip. , unifacialUnifacial: In unifacial leaves, the upper sides are undeveloped and the whole leaf surface develops from the morphological lower side. ; spadixSpadix: A spike of minute flowers closely arranged around a fleshy axis and typically enclosed in a spathe. solitary, pseudolateral and overtopped by a single, erect, leaf-like spatheSpathe: A large sheathing bract enclosing the flower cluster. ; flowers 3-merous, tepalTepal: A segment of the outer whorl in a flower that has no differentiation between petals and sepals. s .6. 📌Acorus (Acoraceae)
3B. Leaves dorsiventrally flattened, bifacial; flowering shoot with long culm-like axis, bearing numerous spadices distally, these borne in axillary clusters subtendSubtend: (of a bract) extend under (a flower) so as to support or enfold it. ed by elongate bracts; flowers 2-merous, tepalTepal: A segment of the outer whorl in a flower that has no differentiation between petals and sepals. s 4 .1. 📌Gymnostachys
2B. Leaves with distinct petiolePetiole: Leaf stem. and expanded blade, primary venationVenation: The arrangement of veins in the leaf. never strictly parallelParallel: Parallel Venation.
4A. Flowers with obvious perigonePerigone: The outer part of a flower, consisting of the calyx (sepals) and corolla (petals). of free or fused tepalTepal: A segment of the outer whorl in a flower that has no differentiation between petals and sepals. s (except Pycnospatha which lacks perigonePerigone: The outer part of a flower, consisting of the calyx (sepals) and corolla (petals). , but has dracontioidDracontioid: leaf, tuberous stem and boat-shaped, fornicateFornicate: Arched or bending over. spatheSpathe: A large sheathing bract enclosing the flower cluster. - see lead 22)
5A. Flowers bisexual, spadixSpadix: A spike of minute flowers closely arranged around a fleshy axis and typically enclosed in a spathe. uniform in appearance with flowers of only one type
6A. Higher order leaf venationVenation: The arrangement of veins in the leaf. parallel-pinnateParallel-pinnate: Parallel-Pinnate Venation. ; tissues with abundant trichosclereidTrichosclereid: A hard, needle-like branched cell. s
7A. SpatheSpathe: A large sheathing bract enclosing the flower cluster. persistentPersistent: Remaining attached to the plant beyond the usual time of falling. ; tepalTepal: A segment of the outer whorl in a flower that has no differentiation between petals and sepals. s free or connateConnate: United so as to form a single part. ; ovaryOvary: The part of the pistil which holds the ovule(s) and is located above or below or at the point of connection with the base of the petals and sepals. 2-4-locularLocular: A locule is a small cavity or compartment within an ovary. ; ovuleOvule: The structure that gives rise to and contains the female reproductive cells s 2-8 per loculeLocule: A small cavity or compartment within an ovary. , placentaPlacenta: The part of the ovary where the funiculus attaches is referred to as the placenta. axile .9. 📌Spathiphyllum
7B. SpatheSpathe: A large sheathing bract enclosing the flower cluster. deliquescentDeliquescent: Having a tendency to become liquid. ; tepalTepal: A segment of the outer whorl in a flower that has no differentiation between petals and sepals. s connateConnate: United so as to form a single part. ; ovaryOvary: The part of the pistil which holds the ovule(s) and is located above or below or at the point of connection with the base of the petals and sepals. 1-locularLocular: A locule is a small cavity or compartment within an ovary. ; ovuleOvule: The structure that gives rise to and contains the female reproductive cells s several, placentaPlacenta: The part of the ovary where the funiculus attaches is referred to as the placenta. basalBasal: Forming or belonging to a bottom layer or base. .10. 📌Holochlamys
6B. Higher order leaf venationVenation: The arrangement of veins in the leaf. clearly reticulateReticulate: Reticulate Venation. d; tissues without trichosclereidTrichosclereid: A hard, needle-like branched cell. s or trichosclereidTrichosclereid: A hard, needle-like branched cell. s very few
8A. Stem aerial, not tuberous or rhizomatous, never aculeateAculeate: Sharply pointed; prickly. ; plant usually a climbing hemiepiphyteEpiphyte: A plant that grows harmlessly upon another plant and derives its moisture and nutrients from the air, rain, and sometimes from debris accumulating around it. or epiphyteEpiphyte: A plant that grows harmlessly upon another plant and derives its moisture and nutrients from the air, rain, and sometimes from debris accumulating around it. , less often lithophyteLithophyte: A plant that grows on bare rock or stone. or terrestrial, only very rarely helophyticHelophytic: A bog plant; especially a perennial marsh plant having its overwintering buds under water. (some spp. of Anthurium)
9A. Neotropical plants; seeds with copious endospermEndosperm: A tissue produced inside the seeds of most of the flowering plants following fertilization. It surrounds the embryo and provides nutrition in the form of starch, though it can also contain oils and protein. ; pollen usually forateForate: With aperatures or openings. , never monosulcateSulcate: Furrowed; grooved. .8. 📌Anthurium
9B. Palaeotropical plants; seeds without endospermEndosperm: A tissue produced inside the seeds of most of the flowering plants following fertilization. It surrounds the embryo and provides nutrition in the form of starch, though it can also contain oils and protein. ; pollen monosulcateSulcate: Furrowed; grooved. or inaperturateInaperturate: Without an opening.
10A. StigmaStigma: The receptive tip of a carpel, or of several fused carpels, in the gynoecium of a flower. transversely oblongOblong: ; stamenStamen: The pollen-producing reproductive organ of a flower. s always 4 per flower; pollen inaperturateInaperturate: Without an opening. ; perigonePerigone: The outer part of a flower, consisting of the calyx (sepals) and corolla (petals). consisting of a single cup-like structure .11. 📌Anadendrum
10B. StigmaStigma: The receptive tip of a carpel, or of several fused carpels, in the gynoecium of a flower. hemispheric to discoid; stamenStamen: The pollen-producing reproductive organ of a flower. s usually 6 per flower; pollen monosulcateSulcate: Furrowed; grooved. ; perigonePerigone: The outer part of a flower, consisting of the calyx (sepals) and corolla (petals). usually consisting of free tepalTepal: A segment of the outer whorl in a flower that has no differentiation between petals and sepals. s or when connateConnate: United so as to form a single part. and cup-like the flowers are borne on short pedicels
11A. OvaryOvary: The part of the pistil which holds the ovule(s) and is located above or below or at the point of connection with the base of the petals and sepals. 3-locularLocular: A locule is a small cavity or compartment within an ovary. ; loculeLocule: A small cavity or compartment within an ovary. s 1-ovulateOvulate: The structure that gives rise to and contains the female reproductive cells ; flowering shoot with inflorescences always axillary
12A. Flowers sessileSessile: Attached directly by its base without a stalk or peduncle. ; tepalTepal: A segment of the outer whorl in a flower that has no differentiation between petals and sepals. s free, very rarely basalBasal: Forming or belonging to a bottom layer or base. ly united .5. 📌Pothos
12B. Flowers pedicellatePedicellate: A flower having a stalk is called pedunculate or pedicellate. ; tepalTepal: A segment of the outer whorl in a flower that has no differentiation between petals and sepals. s connateConnate: United so as to form a single part. .6. 📌Pedicellarum
11B. OvaryOvary: The part of the pistil which holds the ovule(s) and is located above or below or at the point of connection with the base of the petals and sepals. 1-locularLocular: A locule is a small cavity or compartment within an ovary. ; flowering shoots terminating in a branching system of spadices .7. 📌Pothoidium
8B. Stem typically subterranean, tuberous or rhizomatous, sometimes aerial and creeping or scrambling but then aculeateAculeate: Sharply pointed; prickly. ; plant frequently a helophyteHelophyte: A bog plant; especially a perennial marsh plant having its overwintering buds under water.
13A. Plants of temperate regions (N. America, NE. Asia); leaf blade always entire, ovateOvate: to ellipticElliptic:
14A. OvaryOvary: The part of the pistil which holds the ovule(s) and is located above or below or at the point of connection with the base of the petals and sepals. 2-locularLocular: A locule is a small cavity or compartment within an ovary. ; ovuleOvule: The structure that gives rise to and contains the female reproductive cells s 2 per loculeLocule: A small cavity or compartment within an ovary. , placentaPlacenta: The part of the ovary where the funiculus attaches is referred to as the placenta. axile .3. 📌Lysichiton
14B. OvaryOvary: The part of the pistil which holds the ovule(s) and is located above or below or at the point of connection with the base of the petals and sepals. 1-locularLocular: A locule is a small cavity or compartment within an ovary. ; ovuleOvule: The structure that gives rise to and contains the female reproductive cells 1, placentaPlacenta: The part of the ovary where the funiculus attaches is referred to as the placenta. apicalApical: Of, relating to, or denoting an apex. or basalBasal: Forming or belonging to a bottom layer or base.
15A. PlacentaPlacenta: The part of the ovary where the funiculus attaches is referred to as the placenta. basalBasal: Forming or belonging to a bottom layer or base. ; spatheSpathe: A large sheathing bract enclosing the flower cluster. inconspicuous; spadixSpadix: A spike of minute flowers closely arranged around a fleshy axis and typically enclosed in a spathe. cylindric, stipeStipe: A stalk or stem. very long .2. 📌Orontium
15B. PlacentaPlacenta: The part of the ovary where the funiculus attaches is referred to as the placenta. apicalApical: Of, relating to, or denoting an apex. ; spatheSpathe: A large sheathing bract enclosing the flower cluster. thick, ventricoseVentricose: Distended, inflated. Having a protruding belly. , enclosing spadixSpadix: A spike of minute flowers closely arranged around a fleshy axis and typically enclosed in a spathe. ; spadixSpadix: A spike of minute flowers closely arranged around a fleshy axis and typically enclosed in a spathe. subgloboseSubglobose: Imperfectly globose ( globe-shaped ). , stipeStipe: A stalk or stem. short .4. 📌Symplocarpus
13B. Plants of tropical and subtropical regions; leaf blade sagittateSagittate: , pinnatifidPinnatifid: , pinnatisectPinnatisect: Having lobes with incisions that extend almost, or up to midrib. or dracontioidDracontioid:
16A. Leaf deeply sagittateSagittate: , anteriorAnterior: division not pinnatifidPinnatifid: or pinnatisectPinnatisect: Having lobes with incisions that extend almost, or up to midrib.
17A. OvaryOvary: The part of the pistil which holds the ovule(s) and is located above or below or at the point of connection with the base of the petals and sepals. many- to 2-ovulateOvulate: The structure that gives rise to and contains the female reproductive cells , rarely 1-ovulateOvulate: The structure that gives rise to and contains the female reproductive cells ; seeds with endospermEndosperm: A tissue produced inside the seeds of most of the flowering plants following fertilization. It surrounds the embryo and provides nutrition in the form of starch, though it can also contain oils and protein.
18A. Plants without stolons; petiolePetiole: Leaf stem. spines dispersed; stamenStamen: The pollen-producing reproductive organ of a flower. filaments free; tropical Asia to Oceania .26. 📌Cyrtosperma
18B. Plants with long stolons; petiolePetiole: Leaf stem. spines in ridges; stamenStamen: The pollen-producing reproductive organ of a flower. filaments free or connateConnate: United so as to form a single part. ; tropical West Africa .27. 📌Lasimorpha
17B. OvaryOvary: The part of the pistil which holds the ovule(s) and is located above or below or at the point of connection with the base of the petals and sepals. 1-ovulateOvulate: The structure that gives rise to and contains the female reproductive cells , rarely 2-ovulateOvulate: The structure that gives rise to and contains the female reproductive cells ; seeds without endospermEndosperm: A tissue produced inside the seeds of most of the flowering plants following fertilization. It surrounds the embryo and provides nutrition in the form of starch, though it can also contain oils and protein. or rarely with a little endospermEndosperm: A tissue produced inside the seeds of most of the flowering plants following fertilization. It surrounds the embryo and provides nutrition in the form of starch, though it can also contain oils and protein.
19A. PetiolePetiole: Leaf stem. aculeateAculeate: Sharply pointed; prickly. , with obvious spines; Malay Archipelago .28. 📌Podolasia
19B. PetiolePetiole: Leaf stem. smooth to scabrid-verrucoseVerrucose: Covered with warts or wartlike projections. , never aculeateAculeate: Sharply pointed; prickly. ; tropical America
20A. Leaf blade never fenestrateFenestrate: Having large openings or windows. ; spatheSpathe: A large sheathing bract enclosing the flower cluster. lanceolateLanceolate: , very long-acuminateAcuminate: Tapering to a point. and usually spirally twisted; ovaryOvary: The part of the pistil which holds the ovule(s) and is located above or below or at the point of connection with the base of the petals and sepals. loculeLocule: A small cavity or compartment within an ovary. s with (1-)2 to several ovuleOvule: The structure that gives rise to and contains the female reproductive cells s; neotropics .30. 📌Urospatha
20B. Leaf blade often perforateForate: With aperatures or openings. d with a few perforations of irregular size between primary lateral veinVein: Venation types: A. midrib; B. primary lateral veins; C. interprimaray veins; D. secondary veins; E. collective veins; F. tertiary veins; G. basal ribs; H. basal veins. s; spatheSpathe: A large sheathing bract enclosing the flower cluster. fornicateFornicate: Arched or bending over. ; endemic to Brazil (coastal Bahia and Espirito Santo) .22. 📌Dracontioides
16B. Leaf blade pinnatifidPinnatifid: , pinnatisectPinnatisect: Having lobes with incisions that extend almost, or up to midrib. , dracontioidDracontioid: or sometimes pedatifid; anteriorAnterior: division always pinnatePinnate: Pinnate Venation. ly divided, either pinnatifidPinnatifid: , pinnatisectPinnatisect: Having lobes with incisions that extend almost, or up to midrib. or yet more highly divided
21A. Stem aculeateAculeate: Sharply pointed; prickly. , aerial and scrambling to prostrate, internodes distinct, green.29. 📌Lasia
21B. Stem not aculeateAculeate: Sharply pointed; prickly. , subterranean, internodes very abbreviated, not green
22A. Leaf blade dracontioidDracontioid: , anteriorAnterior: division bipinnatifidPinnatifid: or yet more highly divided; stem a depressed-globose tuber; spatheSpathe: A large sheathing bract enclosing the flower cluster. fornicateFornicate: Arched or bending over.
23A. Tropical America; flowers with perigonePerigone: The outer part of a flower, consisting of the calyx (sepals) and corolla (petals). of 4-8 free tepalTepal: A segment of the outer whorl in a flower that has no differentiation between petals and sepals. s; berries smooth, red .21. 📌Dracontium
23B. Tropical southeast Asia; flowers without perigonePerigone: The outer part of a flower, consisting of the calyx (sepals) and corolla (petals). ; berries aculeateAculeate: Sharply pointed; prickly. , dark green .24. 📌Pycnospatha
22B. Leaf blade pinnatifidPinnatifid: , pinnatisectPinnatisect: Having lobes with incisions that extend almost, or up to midrib. , or sometimes pedatifid, anteriorAnterior: division pinnatifidPinnatifid: to pinnatisectPinnatisect: Having lobes with incisions that extend almost, or up to midrib. ; stem a vertical or horizontal rhizome; spatheSpathe: A large sheathing bract enclosing the flower cluster. erect, not fornicateFornicate: Arched or bending over. , blade often spirally twisted apicalApical: Of, relating to, or denoting an apex. ly
24A. Tropical America; testa thick, verrucoseVerrucose: Covered with warts or wartlike projections. ; embryo curved .23. 📌Anaphyllopsis
24B. Southern India; testa membranous, smooth; embryo straight .25. 📌Anaphyllum
5B. Flowers unisexual, spadixSpadix: A spike of minute flowers closely arranged around a fleshy axis and typically enclosed in a spathe. clearly divided into basalBasal: Forming or belonging to a bottom layer or base. female zone and apicalApical: Of, relating to, or denoting an apex. male zone; tropical Africa
25A. Leaf pinnatisectPinnatisect: Having lobes with incisions that extend almost, or up to midrib. to tri- or quadripinnatifidPinnatifid: ; tepalTepal: A segment of the outer whorl in a flower that has no differentiation between petals and sepals. s free; spatheSpathe: A large sheathing bract enclosing the flower cluster. margins free
26A. Leaf blade pinnatisectPinnatisect: Having lobes with incisions that extend almost, or up to midrib. ; stamenStamen: The pollen-producing reproductive organ of a flower. s free .32. 📌Zamioculcas
26B. Leaf blade bipinnatifidPinnatifid: to quadripinnatifidPinnatifid: , at least in lowest pinnaPinna: A primary division of a pinnate leaf. e; stamenStamen: The pollen-producing reproductive organ of a flower. filaments connateConnate: United so as to form a single part. .33. 📌Gonatopus
25B. Leaf entire, linearLinear: to cordateCordate: , sagittateSagittate: or hastateHastate: ; tepalTepal: A segment of the outer whorl in a flower that has no differentiation between petals and sepals. s connateConnate: United so as to form a single part. into cup; spatheSpathe: A large sheathing bract enclosing the flower cluster. margins connateConnate: United so as to form a single part. basalBasal: Forming or belonging to a bottom layer or base. ly .34. 📌Stylochaeton
4B. Flowers without perigon of free or fused tepalTepal: A segment of the outer whorl in a flower that has no differentiation between petals and sepals. s
27A. Flowers bisexual; spadixSpadix: A spike of minute flowers closely arranged around a fleshy axis and typically enclosed in a spathe. uniform in appearance with flowers of only one type (sometimes with sterile flowers at spadixSpadix: A spike of minute flowers closely arranged around a fleshy axis and typically enclosed in a spathe. base)
28A. HelophyteHelophyte: A bog plant; especially a perennial marsh plant having its overwintering buds under water. s from temperate regions of northern hemisphere; petiolePetiole: Leaf stem. sheath with long apicalApical: Of, relating to, or denoting an apex. liguleLigule: A narrow strap-shaped part of a plant, especially a membranous scale on the inner side of the leaf sheath at its junction with the blade. .31. 📌Calla
28B. Climbing hemiepiphyteEpiphyte: A plant that grows harmlessly upon another plant and derives its moisture and nutrients from the air, rain, and sometimes from debris accumulating around it. s or sometimes epiphyteEpiphyte: A plant that grows harmlessly upon another plant and derives its moisture and nutrients from the air, rain, and sometimes from debris accumulating around it. s or very rarely rheophyteRheophyte: An aquatic plant that lives in fast moving water currents. s (few Rhaphidophora) from tropical regions; petiolePetiole: Leaf stem. sheath non-ligulateLigulate: Having a narrow strap-shaped part, especially a membranous scale on the inner side of the leaf sheath at its junction with the blade. or liguleLigule: A narrow strap-shaped part of a plant, especially a membranous scale on the inner side of the leaf sheath at its junction with the blade. only short
29A. PetiolePetiole: Leaf stem. usually very short with non-annular insertion; trichosclereidTrichosclereid: A hard, needle-like branched cell. s not present in tissues, leaf never perforateForate: With aperatures or openings. d or lobed; primary lateral veinVein: Venation types: A. midrib; B. primary lateral veins; C. interprimaray veins; D. secondary veins; E. collective veins; F. tertiary veins; G. basal ribs; H. basal veins. s forming distinct submarginal veinVein: Venation types: A. midrib; B. primary lateral veins; C. interprimaray veins; D. secondary veins; E. collective veins; F. tertiary veins; G. basal ribs; H. basal veins. .8. 📌Heteropsis
29B. PetiolePetiole: Leaf stem. well-developed with annular insertion and usually conspicuous sheath; trichosclereidTrichosclereid: A hard, needle-like branched cell. s present in tissues, or if absent (or nearly so) then leaf with conspicuously reticulateReticulate: Reticulate Venation. higher order venationVenation: The arrangement of veins in the leaf. and often perforateForate: With aperatures or openings. d or lobed (Amydrium); primary lateral veinVein: Venation types: A. midrib; B. primary lateral veins; C. interprimaray veins; D. secondary veins; E. collective veins; F. tertiary veins; G. basal ribs; H. basal veins. s usually not forming distinct submarginal veinVein: Venation types: A. midrib; B. primary lateral veins; C. interprimaray veins; D. secondary veins; E. collective veins; F. tertiary veins; G. basal ribs; H. basal veins.
30A. TrichosclereidTrichosclereid: A hard, needle-like branched cell. s rare or nearly absent; higher order leaf venationVenation: The arrangement of veins in the leaf. completely reticulateReticulate: Reticulate Venation. ; ovaryOvary: The part of the pistil which holds the ovule(s) and is located above or below or at the point of connection with the base of the petals and sepals. 1-locularLocular: A locule is a small cavity or compartment within an ovary. , placentaPlacenta: The part of the ovary where the funiculus attaches is referred to as the placenta. 1, intrusive-parietal, ovuleOvule: The structure that gives rise to and contains the female reproductive cells s 2 .13. 📌Amydrium
30B. TrichosclereidTrichosclereid: A hard, needle-like branched cell. s abundant; higher order leaf venationVenation: The arrangement of veins in the leaf. parallelParallel: Parallel Venation. to primary lateral veinVein: Venation types: A. midrib; B. primary lateral veins; C. interprimaray veins; D. secondary veins; E. collective veins; F. tertiary veins; G. basal ribs; H. basal veins. s, or only finest venationVenation: The arrangement of veins in the leaf. reticulateReticulate: Reticulate Venation.
31A. OvaryOvary: The part of the pistil which holds the ovule(s) and is located above or below or at the point of connection with the base of the petals and sepals. 1-locularLocular: A locule is a small cavity or compartment within an ovary. or incompletely 2-locularLocular: A locule is a small cavity or compartment within an ovary.
32A. OvuleOvule: The structure that gives rise to and contains the female reproductive cells s anatropous, more than one
33A. OvuleOvule: The structure that gives rise to and contains the female reproductive cells s numerous, superposed on 2 (rarely 3) parietal placentaPlacenta: The part of the ovary where the funiculus attaches is referred to as the placenta. s; seeds fusiform, straight, 1.3-3.2 mm long, 0.6-1.0 mm wide.14. 📌Rhaphidophora
33B. OvuleOvule: The structure that gives rise to and contains the female reproductive cells s 2-4 (-6) at base of a single intrusive placentaPlacenta: The part of the ovary where the funiculus attaches is referred to as the placenta. ; seeds curved, 3-7 mm long, 1.5-4.0 mm wide .15. 📌Epipremnum
32B. OvuleOvule: The structure that gives rise to and contains the female reproductive cells s amphitropous to anatropous, solitary, basalBasal: Forming or belonging to a bottom layer or base.
34A. Adult leaf blade entire; palaeotropics .16. 📌Scindapsus
34B. Adult leaf blade pinnatifidPinnatifid: ; neotropics (Amazonia) 18. 📌Alloschemone
31B. OvaryOvary: The part of the pistil which holds the ovule(s) and is located above or below or at the point of connection with the base of the petals and sepals. 2-5 locularLocular: A locule is a small cavity or compartment within an ovary.
35A. Seeds fusiform, claviform or lenticular, less than 3 mm long, endospermEndosperm: A tissue produced inside the seeds of most of the flowering plants following fertilization. It surrounds the embryo and provides nutrition in the form of starch, though it can also contain oils and protein. present; ovuleOvule: The structure that gives rise to and contains the female reproductive cells s (2-)3-many per loculeLocule: A small cavity or compartment within an ovary. ; leaf blade entire
36A. PlacentaPlacenta: The part of the ovary where the funiculus attaches is referred to as the placenta. basalBasal: Forming or belonging to a bottom layer or base. ; seeds fusiform to claviform; leaf blades thickly coriaceousCoriaceous: Resembling or having the texture of leather. .20. 📌Stenospermation
36B. PlacentaPlacenta: The part of the ovary where the funiculus attaches is referred to as the placenta. axile; seeds lenticular and flattened, strongly curved; leaf blades mostly membranous .19. 📌Rhodospatha
35B. Seeds globose to oblongOblong: , 6-22 mm long, the raphe S-shaped; endospermEndosperm: A tissue produced inside the seeds of most of the flowering plants following fertilization. It surrounds the embryo and provides nutrition in the form of starch, though it can also contain oils and protein. absent; ovuleOvule: The structure that gives rise to and contains the female reproductive cells s 2 per loculeLocule: A small cavity or compartment within an ovary. ; leaf blade variously shaped, often perforateForate: With aperatures or openings. d or pinnatifidPinnatifid: or both .17. 📌Monstera
27B. Flowers unisexual; spadixSpadix: A spike of minute flowers closely arranged around a fleshy axis and typically enclosed in a spathe. clearly divided into basalBasal: Forming or belonging to a bottom layer or base. female zone and apicalApical: Of, relating to, or denoting an apex. or intermediate male zone, flowers very rarely in longitudinal rows (Spathicarpa)
37A. SpadixSpadix: A spike of minute flowers closely arranged around a fleshy axis and typically enclosed in a spathe. fused laterally on both sides to spatheSpathe: A large sheathing bract enclosing the flower cluster. and entirely enclosed by it, forming a septumSeptum: A partition that separates the locules of a fruit, anther, or sporangium. dividing the spatheSpathe: A large sheathing bract enclosing the flower cluster. into two chambers, with a single gynoecium on one side and the male flowers arranged in 2 rows on the other; very small, seasonally dormant plants endemic to western Mediterranean .87. 📌Ambrosina
37B. SpadixSpadix: A spike of minute flowers closely arranged around a fleshy axis and typically enclosed in a spathe. free or fused to spatheSpathe: A large sheathing bract enclosing the flower cluster. in various degrees but never fused laterally on both sides to spatheSpathe: A large sheathing bract enclosing the flower cluster. to form two internal chambers with a single gynoecium on one side and the male flowers on the other
38A. StamenStamen: The pollen-producing reproductive organ of a flower. s of each male flower free or only the filaments connateConnate: United so as to form a single part.
39A. SpadixSpadix: A spike of minute flowers closely arranged around a fleshy axis and typically enclosed in a spathe. never entirely enclosed by spatheSpathe: A large sheathing bract enclosing the flower cluster. in a basalBasal: Forming or belonging to a bottom layer or base. "kettle" formed of connateConnate: United so as to form a single part. spatheSpathe: A large sheathing bract enclosing the flower cluster. margins (if spatheSpathe: A large sheathing bract enclosing the flower cluster. margins basalBasal: Forming or belonging to a bottom layer or base. ly connateConnate: United so as to form a single part. then plant never aquatic)
40A. Higher order leaf venationVenation: The arrangement of veins in the leaf. parallel-pinnateParallel-pinnate: Parallel-Pinnate Venation.
41A. Upper part of spatheSpathe: A large sheathing bract enclosing the flower cluster. persisting as long as lower part; petiolePetiole: Leaf stem. sheath lacking liguleLigule: A narrow strap-shaped part of a plant, especially a membranous scale on the inner side of the leaf sheath at its junction with the blade. ; ovaryOvary: The part of the pistil which holds the ovule(s) and is located above or below or at the point of connection with the base of the petals and sepals. 1-many locularLocular: A locule is a small cavity or compartment within an ovary. ; thecaeThecae: One of the lobes of an anther in which pollen is produced. dehiscing by subapicalApical: Of, relating to, or denoting an apex. pores or longitudinal slits; connective usually conspicuously thickened
42A. SpatheSpathe: A large sheathing bract enclosing the flower cluster. variously shaped, never campanulate; plants tropical American or tropical Asian; pedunclePeduncle: Flower stem. usually short, if long then female flowers in single whorl (Aglaodorum)
43A. Plant always terrestrial, rarely aquatic, never climbing or epiphyticEpiphytic: A plant that grows harmlessly upon another plant and derives its moisture and nutrients from the air, rain, and sometimes from debris accumulating around it. ; inflorescences not secreting resin at anthesisAnthesis: The period during which pollen is presented and/or the stigma is receptive. ; endotheciumEndothecium: The lining of the cavity of an anther. with cell wall thickenings; ovaryOvary: The part of the pistil which holds the ovule(s) and is located above or below or at the point of connection with the base of the petals and sepals. 1 locularLocular: A locule is a small cavity or compartment within an ovary. or incompletely 2-5 locularLocular: A locule is a small cavity or compartment within an ovary. ; most tropical Asian (except Homalomena sect. Curmeria)
44A. Seed without endospermEndosperm: A tissue produced inside the seeds of most of the flowering plants following fertilization. It surrounds the embryo and provides nutrition in the form of starch, though it can also contain oils and protein. , embryo large; ovuleOvule: The structure that gives rise to and contains the female reproductive cells 1, placentaPlacenta: The part of the ovary where the funiculus attaches is referred to as the placenta. basalBasal: Forming or belonging to a bottom layer or base. or parietal
45A. Inflorescence with short pedunclePeduncle: Flower stem. ; female flowers in spirals; stem erect to repent; placentaPlacenta: The part of the ovary where the funiculus attaches is referred to as the placenta. basalBasal: Forming or belonging to a bottom layer or base. ; forest plants.72. 📌Aglaonema
45B. Inflorescence with long pedunclePeduncle: Flower stem. ; female flowers in a single whorl; stem repent; placentaPlacenta: The part of the ovary where the funiculus attaches is referred to as the placenta. parietal; on tidal mudflats.73. 📌Aglaodorum
44B. Seed with copious endospermEndosperm: A tissue produced inside the seeds of most of the flowering plants following fertilization. It surrounds the embryo and provides nutrition in the form of starch, though it can also contain oils and protein. , embryo relatively small; ovuleOvule: The structure that gives rise to and contains the female reproductive cells s several to many, placentaPlacenta: The part of the ovary where the funiculus attaches is referred to as the placenta. basalBasal: Forming or belonging to a bottom layer or base. , parietal or axile
46A. Male flower consisting of solitary stamenStamen: The pollen-producing reproductive organ of a flower. overtopped by flask-shaped pistillodePistillode: A sterile vestigial pistil remaining in a staminate flower. ; ovaryOvary: The part of the pistil which holds the ovule(s) and is located above or below or at the point of connection with the base of the petals and sepals. 1-locularLocular: A locule is a small cavity or compartment within an ovary. , placentaPlacenta: The part of the ovary where the funiculus attaches is referred to as the placenta. basalBasal: Forming or belonging to a bottom layer or base. .46. 📌Furtadoa
46B. Male flower consisting of 2-6 stamenStamen: The pollen-producing reproductive organ of a flower. s, pistillodePistillode: A sterile vestigial pistil remaining in a staminate flower. s absent; ovaryOvary: The part of the pistil which holds the ovule(s) and is located above or below or at the point of connection with the base of the petals and sepals. incompletely 2-5 locularLocular: A locule is a small cavity or compartment within an ovary. , placentaPlacenta: The part of the ovary where the funiculus attaches is referred to as the placenta. s parietal and axile .47. 📌Homalomena
43B. Plant usually climbing or epiphyticEpiphytic: A plant that grows harmlessly upon another plant and derives its moisture and nutrients from the air, rain, and sometimes from debris accumulating around it. ; inflorescences secreting resin from spatheSpathe: A large sheathing bract enclosing the flower cluster. or spadixSpadix: A spike of minute flowers closely arranged around a fleshy axis and typically enclosed in a spathe. at anthesisAnthesis: The period during which pollen is presented and/or the stigma is receptive. ; endotheciumEndothecium: The lining of the cavity of an anther. nearly always lacking cell wall thickenings; ovaryOvary: The part of the pistil which holds the ovule(s) and is located above or below or at the point of connection with the base of the petals and sepals. completely 2-many locularLocular: A locule is a small cavity or compartment within an ovary. , placentaPlacenta: The part of the ovary where the funiculus attaches is referred to as the placenta. axile to basalBasal: Forming or belonging to a bottom layer or base. ; tropical America .45. 📌Philodendron
42B. SpatheSpathe: A large sheathing bract enclosing the flower cluster. obconic to campanulate; plants from Southern Africa (naturalized in America and Asia); pedunclePeduncle: Flower stem. long, sometimes longer than leaves .77. 📌Zantedeschia
41B. Upper part of spatheSpathe: A large sheathing bract enclosing the flower cluster. marcescentMarcescent: Withering but remaining attached to the stem. or caducousCaducous: Easily detached and shed at an early stage. at anthesisAnthesis: The period during which pollen is presented and/or the stigma is receptive. , lower part long-persistentPersistent: Remaining attached to the plant beyond the usual time of falling. ; petiolePetiole: Leaf stem. sheath with long, marcescentMarcescent: Withering but remaining attached to the stem. liguleLigule: A narrow strap-shaped part of a plant, especially a membranous scale on the inner side of the leaf sheath at its junction with the blade. (except most Schismatoglottis spp.); ovaryOvary: The part of the pistil which holds the ovule(s) and is located above or below or at the point of connection with the base of the petals and sepals. 1-locularLocular: A locule is a small cavity or compartment within an ovary. ; thecaeThecae: One of the lobes of an anther in which pollen is produced. dehiscing by apicalApical: Of, relating to, or denoting an apex. pores, connective not conspicuously thickened
47A. PlacentaPlacenta: The part of the ovary where the funiculus attaches is referred to as the placenta. s parietal; thecaeThecae: One of the lobes of an anther in which pollen is produced. truncate.
48A. SpatheSpathe: A large sheathing bract enclosing the flower cluster. constricted; ovuleOvule: The structure that gives rise to and contains the female reproductive cells s anatropous to hemianatropous; petiolePetiole: Leaf stem. sheath usually not ligulateLigulate: Having a narrow strap-shaped part, especially a membranous scale on the inner side of the leaf sheath at its junction with the blade. ; upper part of spadixSpadix: A spike of minute flowers closely arranged around a fleshy axis and typically enclosed in a spathe. usually sterile .. 📌49. Schismatoglottis
48B. SpatheSpathe: A large sheathing bract enclosing the flower cluster. not constricted; ovuleOvule: The structure that gives rise to and contains the female reproductive cells s hemiorthotropous to orthotropous; petiolePetiole: Leaf stem. sheath with long, marcescentMarcescent: Withering but remaining attached to the stem. liguleLigule: A narrow strap-shaped part of a plant, especially a membranous scale on the inner side of the leaf sheath at its junction with the blade. ; spadixSpadix: A spike of minute flowers closely arranged around a fleshy axis and typically enclosed in a spathe. fertile almost to apexApex: End forming a point. .50. 📌Piptospatha
47B. PlacentaPlacenta: The part of the ovary where the funiculus attaches is referred to as the placenta. basalBasal: Forming or belonging to a bottom layer or base. or basalBasal: Forming or belonging to a bottom layer or base. and apicalApical: Of, relating to, or denoting an apex. ; thecaeThecae: One of the lobes of an anther in which pollen is produced. truncate or horned
49A. ThecaeThecae: One of the lobes of an anther in which pollen is produced. truncate; placentaPlacenta: The part of the ovary where the funiculus attaches is referred to as the placenta. basalBasal: Forming or belonging to a bottom layer or base. .51. 📌Hottarum
49B. ThecaeThecae: One of the lobes of an anther in which pollen is produced. horned; placentaPlacenta: The part of the ovary where the funiculus attaches is referred to as the placenta. basalBasal: Forming or belonging to a bottom layer or base. or basalBasal: Forming or belonging to a bottom layer or base. and apicalApical: Of, relating to, or denoting an apex.
50A. StigmaStigma: The receptive tip of a carpel, or of several fused carpels, in the gynoecium of a flower. smaller than ovaryOvary: The part of the pistil which holds the ovule(s) and is located above or below or at the point of connection with the base of the petals and sepals. ; upper part of spadixSpadix: A spike of minute flowers closely arranged around a fleshy axis and typically enclosed in a spathe. sterile with a distinct appendixAppendix: Sterile appendage at the end of a spadix. of hornless sterile flowers; spatheSpathe: A large sheathing bract enclosing the flower cluster. constricted or not; stamenStamen: The pollen-producing reproductive organ of a flower. s never excavated apicalApical: Of, relating to, or denoting an apex. ly.
51A. SpatheSpathe: A large sheathing bract enclosing the flower cluster. not constricted; male flowers smooth or verrucoseVerrucose: Covered with warts or wartlike projections. ; sterile flowers between male and female flowers flattened .52. 📌Bucephalandra
51B. SpatheSpathe: A large sheathing bract enclosing the flower cluster. constricted; male flowers densely tuberculateTuberculate: Bearing tubercles or warty protuberances. ; sterile flowers between male and female flowers subcylindric .53. 📌Phymatarum
50B. StigmaStigma: The receptive tip of a carpel, or of several fused carpels, in the gynoecium of a flower. as broad as ovaryOvary: The part of the pistil which holds the ovule(s) and is located above or below or at the point of connection with the base of the petals and sepals. ; upper part of spadixSpadix: A spike of minute flowers closely arranged around a fleshy axis and typically enclosed in a spathe. mostly fertile to apexApex: End forming a point. and without a distinct appendixAppendix: Sterile appendage at the end of a spadix. ; spatheSpathe: A large sheathing bract enclosing the flower cluster. not conspicuously constricted; stamenStamen: The pollen-producing reproductive organ of a flower. s all or mostly excavated apicalApical: Of, relating to, or denoting an apex. ly
52A. StamenStamen: The pollen-producing reproductive organ of a flower. s all excavated; placentaPlacenta: The part of the ovary where the funiculus attaches is referred to as the placenta. basalBasal: Forming or belonging to a bottom layer or base. .54. 📌Aridarum
52B. Two lateral stamenStamen: The pollen-producing reproductive organ of a flower. s of each male flower excavated and thecaeThecae: One of the lobes of an anther in which pollen is produced. horned, central stamenStamen: The pollen-producing reproductive organ of a flower. truncate and thecaeThecae: One of the lobes of an anther in which pollen is produced. hornless; placentaPlacenta: The part of the ovary where the funiculus attaches is referred to as the placenta. s basalBasal: Forming or belonging to a bottom layer or base. (fertile ovuleOvule: The structure that gives rise to and contains the female reproductive cells s) and apicalApical: Of, relating to, or denoting an apex. (apparently sterile) .55. 📌Heteroaridarum
40B. Higher order leaf venationVenation: The arrangement of veins in the leaf. reticulateReticulate: Reticulate Venation.
53A. Leaf blade dracontioidDracontioid: , leaf solitary in each growth period
54A. PetiolePetiole: Leaf stem. usually aculeateAculeate: Sharply pointed; prickly. ; at least some of the ultimate leaf lobes trapezoidTrapezoid: , truncate or shallowly bifid, veinVein: Venation types: A. midrib; B. primary lateral veins; C. interprimaray veins; D. secondary veins; E. collective veins; F. tertiary veins; G. basal ribs; H. basal veins. s not forming regular submarginal collective veinVein: Venation types: A. midrib; B. primary lateral veins; C. interprimaray veins; D. secondary veins; E. collective veins; F. tertiary veins; G. basal ribs; H. basal veins. on each side
55A. PedunclePeduncle: Flower stem. long; ovaryOvary: The part of the pistil which holds the ovule(s) and is located above or below or at the point of connection with the base of the petals and sepals. 1-locularLocular: A locule is a small cavity or compartment within an ovary. .70. 📌Anchomanes
55B. PedunclePeduncle: Flower stem. very short; ovaryOvary: The part of the pistil which holds the ovule(s) and is located above or below or at the point of connection with the base of the petals and sepals. 2-locularLocular: A locule is a small cavity or compartment within an ovary. .71. 📌Pseudohydrosme
54B. PetiolePetiole: Leaf stem. usually smooth, sometimes rugoseRugose: Wrinkled; corrugated. but never aculeateAculeate: Sharply pointed; prickly. ; ultimate leaf lobes usually oblongOblong: -ellipticElliptic: , acuminateAcuminate: Tapering to a point. , with primary lateral veinVein: Venation types: A. midrib; B. primary lateral veins; C. interprimaray veins; D. secondary veins; E. collective veins; F. tertiary veins; G. basal ribs; H. basal veins. s forming regular submarginal collective veinVein: Venation types: A. midrib; B. primary lateral veins; C. interprimaray veins; D. secondary veins; E. collective veins; F. tertiary veins; G. basal ribs; H. basal veins. s on each side
56A. OvaryOvary: The part of the pistil which holds the ovule(s) and is located above or below or at the point of connection with the base of the petals and sepals. 1-4-locularLocular: A locule is a small cavity or compartment within an ovary. ; terminal appendixAppendix: Sterile appendage at the end of a spadix. smooth, rugoseRugose: Wrinkled; corrugated. , rarely verrucoseVerrucose: Covered with warts or wartlike projections. or staminodial (appendixAppendix: Sterile appendage at the end of a spadix. absent in Amorphophallus margaritifer and A. coudercii) .79. 📌Amorphophallus
56B. OvaryOvary: The part of the pistil which holds the ovule(s) and is located above or below or at the point of connection with the base of the petals and sepals. always 1-locularLocular: A locule is a small cavity or compartment within an ovary. ; terminal appendixAppendix: Sterile appendage at the end of a spadix. staminodial, separated from male zone by naked axial region .80. 📌Pseudodracontium
53B. Leaf blade shape of various types but never dracontioidDracontioid: ; usually several leaves present
57A. SpadixSpadix: A spike of minute flowers closely arranged around a fleshy axis and typically enclosed in a spathe. fertile to apexApex: End forming a point. , terminal appendixAppendix: Sterile appendage at the end of a spadix. absent
58A. HelophyteHelophyte: A bog plant; especially a perennial marsh plant having its overwintering buds under water. s with robust, erect stems and an apicalApical: Of, relating to, or denoting an apex. crown of sagittateSagittate: to hastateHastate: (rarely trisect) leaves; tropical America .76. 📌Montrichardia
58B. Terrestrial, hemiepiphyticEpiphytic: A plant that grows harmlessly upon another plant and derives its moisture and nutrients from the air, rain, and sometimes from debris accumulating around it. or epiphyticEpiphytic: A plant that grows harmlessly upon another plant and derives its moisture and nutrients from the air, rain, and sometimes from debris accumulating around it. plants, leaf blade variously shaped; tropical Africa.
59A. Leaf blade usually with pellucidPellucid: Translucently clear. resin canals (lines or points); plants mostly climbing hemiepiphyteEpiphyte: A plant that grows harmlessly upon another plant and derives its moisture and nutrients from the air, rain, and sometimes from debris accumulating around it. s; spatheSpathe: A large sheathing bract enclosing the flower cluster. boat-shaped, convoluteConvolute: The process of convolute vernation involves the wrapping of one margin of the leaf's blade over the other. This folding mechanism makes the emerging leaf look like a tube. basalBasal: Forming or belonging to a bottom layer or base. ly; antherAnther: The part of a stamen that contains the pollen. s lacking endothecial thickenings
60A. LaticiferLaticifer: A laticifer is a type of elongated secretory cell found in the leaves and/or stems of plants that produce latex and rubber as secondary metabolites. s absent; flagelliformFlagelliform: Long, slender, and flexible, like the lash of a whip. shoots absent; leaf blade always simple, acute to rounded at base; ovaryOvary: The part of the pistil which holds the ovule(s) and is located above or below or at the point of connection with the base of the petals and sepals. 1-3-locularLocular: A locule is a small cavity or compartment within an ovary. ; spadixSpadix: A spike of minute flowers closely arranged around a fleshy axis and typically enclosed in a spathe. stipitateStipitate: Having a stalk or stem. or sessileSessile: Attached directly by its base without a stalk or peduncle. .74. 📌Culcasia
60B. LaticiferLaticifer: A laticifer is a type of elongated secretory cell found in the leaves and/or stems of plants that produce latex and rubber as secondary metabolites. s present; flagelliformFlagelliform: Long, slender, and flexible, like the lash of a whip. shoots present; leaf blade oblongOblong: -lanceolateLanceolate: to cordateCordate: , sagittateSagittate: , hastateHastate: , trifidTrifid: or laciniateLaciniate: to pinnatifidPinnatifid: ; ovaryOvary: The part of the pistil which holds the ovule(s) and is located above or below or at the point of connection with the base of the petals and sepals. 1-locularLocular: A locule is a small cavity or compartment within an ovary. ; spadixSpadix: A spike of minute flowers closely arranged around a fleshy axis and typically enclosed in a spathe. sessileSessile: Attached directly by its base without a stalk or peduncle. .75. 📌Cercestis
59B. Leaf blade lacking pellucidPellucid: Translucently clear. resin glands; plants terrestrial; spatheSpathe: A large sheathing bract enclosing the flower cluster. fully expanded,not convoluteConvolute: The process of convolute vernation involves the wrapping of one margin of the leaf's blade over the other. This folding mechanism makes the emerging leaf look like a tube. ; antherAnther: The part of a stamen that contains the pollen. s with endothecial thickenings
61A. Leaf cordateCordate: -sagittateSagittate: or subtriangular, deeply sagittateSagittate: or trifidTrifid: , glabrousGlabrous: Smooth. Free from hair or down. ; spatheSpathe: A large sheathing bract enclosing the flower cluster. green; spadixSpadix: A spike of minute flowers closely arranged around a fleshy axis and typically enclosed in a spathe. entirely free of spatheSpathe: A large sheathing bract enclosing the flower cluster. .69. 📌Nephthytis
61B. Leaf cordateCordate: -ovateOvate: , minutely hispidHispid: Covered with stiff hair or bristles. abaxialAbaxial: Facing away from the stem of a plant (especially denoting the lower surface of a leaf). ly; spatheSpathe: A large sheathing bract enclosing the flower cluster. pure white; female zone of spadixSpadix: A spike of minute flowers closely arranged around a fleshy axis and typically enclosed in a spathe. adnateAdnate: Joined by having grown together. to spatheSpathe: A large sheathing bract enclosing the flower cluster. .78. 📌Callopsis
57B. SpadixSpadix: A spike of minute flowers closely arranged around a fleshy axis and typically enclosed in a spathe. with smooth terminal appendixAppendix: Sterile appendage at the end of a spadix.
62A. LaticiferLaticifer: A laticifer is a type of elongated secretory cell found in the leaves and/or stems of plants that produce latex and rubber as secondary metabolites. s anastomosingAnastomosing: Connecting with one another, particularly applied to veins. ; tropical South America
63A. OvaryOvary: The part of the pistil which holds the ovule(s) and is located above or below or at the point of connection with the base of the petals and sepals. 6- to 9-ovulateOvulate: The structure that gives rise to and contains the female reproductive cells ; leaf blade trisect to pedatisect; stem a subgloboseSubglobose: Imperfectly globose ( globe-shaped ). tuber .58. 📌Zomicarpa
63B. OvaryOvary: The part of the pistil which holds the ovule(s) and is located above or below or at the point of connection with the base of the petals and sepals. 1- to 6-ovulateOvulate: The structure that gives rise to and contains the female reproductive cells ; leaf blade cordateCordate: -sagittateSagittate: ; stem a subgloboseSubglobose: Imperfectly globose ( globe-shaped ). tuber or rhizome
64A. AppendixAppendix: Sterile appendage at the end of a spadix. slender
65A. StamenStamen: The pollen-producing reproductive organ of a flower. connective much prolonged, thread-like; stem tuberous; ovaryOvary: The part of the pistil which holds the ovule(s) and is located above or below or at the point of connection with the base of the petals and sepals. 1- ovulateOvulate: The structure that gives rise to and contains the female reproductive cells .61. 📌Filarum
65B. StamenStamen: The pollen-producing reproductive organ of a flower. connective not at all prolonged; ovaryOvary: The part of the pistil which holds the ovule(s) and is located above or below or at the point of connection with the base of the petals and sepals. 1-6-ovulateOvulate: The structure that gives rise to and contains the female reproductive cells ; stem a creeping rhizome .59. 📌Zomicarpella
64B. AppendixAppendix: Sterile appendage at the end of a spadix. relatively thick and subcylindric; stem a creeping rhizome; ovaryOvary: The part of the pistil which holds the ovule(s) and is located above or below or at the point of connection with the base of the petals and sepals. 1-ovulateOvulate: The structure that gives rise to and contains the female reproductive cells .60. 📌Ulearum
62B. LaticiferLaticifer: A laticifer is a type of elongated secretory cell found in the leaves and/or stems of plants that produce latex and rubber as secondary metabolites. s simple; temperate Eurasia and palaeotropics
66A. SpadixSpadix: A spike of minute flowers closely arranged around a fleshy axis and typically enclosed in a spathe. with zone of sterile flowers between male and female zones, rarely with a naked axis between female and male zones of spadixSpadix: A spike of minute flowers closely arranged around a fleshy axis and typically enclosed in a spathe. (Arum pictum) or with fertile zones contiguous (Dracunculus)
67A. PlacentaPlacenta: The part of the ovary where the funiculus attaches is referred to as the placenta. parietal to subbasalBasal: Forming or belonging to a bottom layer or base. ; leaf blade sagittateSagittate: or hastateHastate: .88. 📌Arum
67B. PlacentaPlacenta: The part of the ovary where the funiculus attaches is referred to as the placenta. apicalApical: Of, relating to, or denoting an apex. and/or basalBasal: Forming or belonging to a bottom layer or base. ; leaf blade variously shaped
68A. PlacentaPlacenta: The part of the ovary where the funiculus attaches is referred to as the placenta. s basalBasal: Forming or belonging to a bottom layer or base. and apicalApical: Of, relating to, or denoting an apex.
69A. Male zone of spadixSpadix: A spike of minute flowers closely arranged around a fleshy axis and typically enclosed in a spathe. contiguous with female zone; leaf blade pedatifid but lobes not spirally twisted upwards .90. 📌Dracunculus
69B. Male zone of spadixSpadix: A spike of minute flowers closely arranged around a fleshy axis and typically enclosed in a spathe. separated from female zone by subulate to filiform sterile organs; leaf blade variously shaped
70A. AppendixAppendix: Sterile appendage at the end of a spadix. covered with subulate to setiform sterile flowers; leaf blade pedatifid, lobes twisting upwards on each side .91. 📌Helicodiceros
70B. AppendixAppendix: Sterile appendage at the end of a spadix. smooth; leaf blade oblongOblong: -lanceolateLanceolate: or sagittateSagittate: -hastateHastate: .92. 📌Theriophonum
68B. PlacentaPlacenta: The part of the ovary where the funiculus attaches is referred to as the placenta. basalBasal: Forming or belonging to a bottom layer or base.
71A. Lower spatheSpathe: A large sheathing bract enclosing the flower cluster. margins free (except Typhonium hirsutum)
72A. Infructescence borne above ground level, berries dark red to purple, pericarpPericarp: The part of a fruit formed from the wall of the ripened ovary. juicy; sterile zone between male and female zones of spadixSpadix: A spike of minute flowers closely arranged around a fleshy axis and typically enclosed in a spathe. relatively long, often partially naked; tropical and subtropical to warm temperate Asia to Australia .93. 📌Typhonium
72B. Infructescence borne at or below ground level, berries white to pale lilac, pericarpPericarp: The part of a fruit formed from the wall of the ripened ovary. firm, not juicy; sterile zone between male and female zones relatively short and covered entirely with subulate sterile flowers; Turkey, eastern North Africa, Near East, central Asia .89. 📌Eminium
71B. Lower spatheSpathe: A large sheathing bract enclosing the flower cluster. margins connateConnate: United so as to form a single part. for an appreciable distance (entirely free in Biarum aleppicum)
73A. Leaf usually solitary, blade deeply pedatifid to pedatisect; ovaryOvary: The part of the pistil which holds the ovule(s) and is located above or below or at the point of connection with the base of the petals and sepals. 2-several-ovulateOvulate: The structure that gives rise to and contains the female reproductive cells .94. 📌Sauromatum
73B. Leaves several; blade linearLinear: to ovateOvate: , ellipticElliptic: or obovateOvate: ; ovaryOvary: The part of the pistil which holds the ovule(s) and is located above or below or at the point of connection with the base of the petals and sepals. 1-ovulateOvulate: The structure that gives rise to and contains the female reproductive cells
74A. Leaf blade broadly ellipticElliptic: , spatheSpathe: A large sheathing bract enclosing the flower cluster. tube septate .95. 📌Lazarum
74B. Leaf blade linearLinear: , ovateOvate: , ellipticElliptic: -oblongOblong: or obovateOvate: ; spatheSpathe: A large sheathing bract enclosing the flower cluster. tube not septate .96. 📌Biarum
66B. SpadixSpadix: A spike of minute flowers closely arranged around a fleshy axis and typically enclosed in a spathe. usually without sterile flowers (sometimes present in Arisaema)
75A. OvaryOvary: The part of the pistil which holds the ovule(s) and is located above or below or at the point of connection with the base of the petals and sepals. several-ovulateOvulate: The structure that gives rise to and contains the female reproductive cells ; female zone of spadixSpadix: A spike of minute flowers closely arranged around a fleshy axis and typically enclosed in a spathe. free from spatheSpathe: A large sheathing bract enclosing the flower cluster. ; spatheSpathe: A large sheathing bract enclosing the flower cluster. without a transverse septumSeptum: A partition that separates the locules of a fruit, anther, or sporangium. separating male and female zones.
76A. Flowers of both sexes always present in a single inflorescence; male flowers 1-androus; lower spatheSpathe: A large sheathing bract enclosing the flower cluster. margins connateConnate: United so as to form a single part. ; leaf blade ovateOvate: or sagittateSagittate: .86. 📌Arisarum
76B. Flowers of both sexes sometimes present in a single inflorescence, but more often with male and female flowers appearing in separate inflorescences; male flowers 2-5-androus; lower spatheSpathe: A large sheathing bract enclosing the flower cluster. margins convoluteConvolute: The process of convolute vernation involves the wrapping of one margin of the leaf's blade over the other. This folding mechanism makes the emerging leaf look like a tube. ; leaf blade normally trisect, pedatisect or radiatisect, rarely simple and ovateOvate: .98. 📌Arisaema
75B. OvaryOvary: The part of the pistil which holds the ovule(s) and is located above or below or at the point of connection with the base of the petals and sepals. 1-ovulateOvulate: The structure that gives rise to and contains the female reproductive cells ; female zone of spadixSpadix: A spike of minute flowers closely arranged around a fleshy axis and typically enclosed in a spathe. adnateAdnate: Joined by having grown together. to spatheSpathe: A large sheathing bract enclosing the flower cluster. ; spatheSpathe: A large sheathing bract enclosing the flower cluster. usually with transverse septumSeptum: A partition that separates the locules of a fruit, anther, or sporangium. between male and female zones .97. 📌Pinellia
39B. SpadixSpadix: A spike of minute flowers closely arranged around a fleshy axis and typically enclosed in a spathe. entirely enclosed by spatheSpathe: A large sheathing bract enclosing the flower cluster. in a basalBasal: Forming or belonging to a bottom layer or base. "kettle" formed of connateConnate: United so as to form a single part. spatheSpathe: A large sheathing bract enclosing the flower cluster. margins, plants always helophyticHelophytic: A bog plant; especially a perennial marsh plant having its overwintering buds under water. or aquatic
77A. Female flowers spirally arranged (pseudo-whorl in Lagenandra nairii, whorled in L. gomezii) and free; spatheSpathe: A large sheathing bract enclosing the flower cluster. tube "kettle" with connateConnate: United so as to form a single part. margins occupying entire spatheSpathe: A large sheathing bract enclosing the flower cluster. tube; spatheSpathe: A large sheathing bract enclosing the flower cluster. blade usually opening only slightly by a straight ot twisted slit; berries free, opening from base; leaf ptyxisPtyxis: The way in which an individual leaf is folded in the bud. involuteInvolute: In involute vernation both margins on opposing sides of the leaf are rolled up forming two tubes that meet at the midrib of the leaf. .56. 📌Lagenandra
77B. Female flowers in a single whorl, connateConnate: United so as to form a single part. ; spatheSpathe: A large sheathing bract enclosing the flower cluster. tube kettle occupying only lower part of spatheSpathe: A large sheathing bract enclosing the flower cluster. tube, remainder also with connateConnate: United so as to form a single part. margins (except Cryptocoryne spiralis), blade spreading or twisted; berries connateConnate: United so as to form a single part. into a syncarp which opens from the apexApex: End forming a point. ; leaf ptyxisPtyxis: The way in which an individual leaf is folded in the bud. convoluteConvolute: The process of convolute vernation involves the wrapping of one margin of the leaf's blade over the other. This folding mechanism makes the emerging leaf look like a tube. .57. 📌Cryptocoryne
38B. StamenStamen: The pollen-producing reproductive organ of a flower. s of each male flower entirely connateConnate: United so as to form a single part. into a distinct synandriumSynandrium: Sets of stamens of which the anthers have been fused. , synandriumSynandrium: Sets of stamens of which the anthers have been fused. rarely reduced to single stamenStamen: The pollen-producing reproductive organ of a flower. (Colletogyne endemic to Madagascar) or stamenStamen: The pollen-producing reproductive organ of a flower. s free and basalBasal: Forming or belonging to a bottom layer or base. ly connateConnate: United so as to form a single part. with remote globose thecaeThecae: One of the lobes of an anther in which pollen is produced. (Gorgonidium endemic to Andean South America), or only filaments connateConnate: United so as to form a single part. and then stigmaStigma: The receptive tip of a carpel, or of several fused carpels, in the gynoecium of a flower. stellate and 5-8-lobed (Spathantheum)
78A. LaticiferLaticifer: A laticifer is a type of elongated secretory cell found in the leaves and/or stems of plants that produce latex and rubber as secondary metabolites. s simple
79A. SynandriaSynandria: Sets of stamens of which the anthers have been fused. connateConnate: United so as to form a single part. , thecaeThecae: One of the lobes of an anther in which pollen is produced. of adjacent synandriaSynandria: Sets of stamens of which the anthers have been fused. encircling pits in the spadixSpadix: A spike of minute flowers closely arranged around a fleshy axis and typically enclosed in a spathe. , each pit with a somewhat prominent upper margin; leaf peltatePeltate: ; Burma to India .99. 📌Ariopsis
79B. SynandriaSynandria: Sets of stamens of which the anthers have been fused. free; leaf not peltatePeltate: ; Africa, Madagascar or Americas
80A. Higher order leaf venationVenation: The arrangement of veins in the leaf. parallel-pinnateParallel-pinnate: Parallel-Pinnate Venation. or if reticulateReticulate: Reticulate Venation. then stem a creeping rhizome and plant from Amazonia (Bognera)
81A. OvuleOvule: The structure that gives rise to and contains the female reproductive cells s anatropous; primary lateral veinVein: Venation types: A. midrib; B. primary lateral veins; C. interprimaray veins; D. secondary veins; E. collective veins; F. tertiary veins; G. basal ribs; H. basal veins. s of leaf forming a single marginal veinVein: Venation types: A. midrib; B. primary lateral veins; C. interprimaray veins; D. secondary veins; E. collective veins; F. tertiary veins; G. basal ribs; H. basal veins. , no submarginal collective veinVein: Venation types: A. midrib; B. primary lateral veins; C. interprimaray veins; D. secondary veins; E. collective veins; F. tertiary veins; G. basal ribs; H. basal veins. present; plant from tropical America or continental tropical Africa.
82A. Female zone of spadixSpadix: A spike of minute flowers closely arranged around a fleshy axis and typically enclosed in a spathe. free; plant from tropical west and central Africa .48. 📌Anubias
82B. Female zone of spadixSpadix: A spike of minute flowers closely arranged around a fleshy axis and typically enclosed in a spathe. entirely adnateAdnate: Joined by having grown together. to spatheSpathe: A large sheathing bract enclosing the flower cluster. ; plant from tropical America.
83A. Female flowers each with whorl of several staminodeStaminode: A sterile or abortive stamen, frequently resembling a stamen without its anther. s; higher order leaf venationVenation: The arrangement of veins in the leaf. strictly parallel-pinnateParallel-pinnate: Parallel-Pinnate Venation. .35. 📌Dieffenbachia
83B. Female flowers without staminodeStaminode: A sterile or abortive stamen, frequently resembling a stamen without its anther. s; higher order leaf venationVenation: The arrangement of veins in the leaf. reticulateReticulate: Reticulate Venation. .36. 📌Bognera
81B. OvuleOvule: The structure that gives rise to and contains the female reproductive cells s orthotropous to hemi-orthotropous; primary lateral veinVein: Venation types: A. midrib; B. primary lateral veins; C. interprimaray veins; D. secondary veins; E. collective veins; F. tertiary veins; G. basal ribs; H. basal veins. s of leaf forming submarginal collective veinVein: Venation types: A. midrib; B. primary lateral veins; C. interprimaray veins; D. secondary veins; E. collective veins; F. tertiary veins; G. basal ribs; H. basal veins. and 1-2 marginal veinVein: Venation types: A. midrib; B. primary lateral veins; C. interprimaray veins; D. secondary veins; E. collective veins; F. tertiary veins; G. basal ribs; H. basal veins. s; plants from temperate eastern North America or Madagascar.
84A. Giant herbs (to 4m) with massive pseudostem of petiolePetiole: Leaf stem. sheaths; staminodeStaminode: A sterile or abortive stamen, frequently resembling a stamen without its anther. s of female flower free; Madagascar (also naturalized in Pemba, Zanzibar and Mascarene Is.) .85. 📌Typhonodorum
84B. Relatively small herbs (less than 1m) without pseudostem; staminodeStaminode: A sterile or abortive stamen, frequently resembling a stamen without its anther. s of female flower connateConnate: United so as to form a single part. into a cup-like synandrodium; eastern North America .84. 📌Peltandra
80B. Higher order leaf venationVenation: The arrangement of veins in the leaf. reticulateReticulate: Reticulate Venation. ; stem usually a subgloboseSubglobose: Imperfectly globose ( globe-shaped ). tuber, if rhizomatous then plant Madagascan
85A. Madagascan plants; seed lacking endospermEndosperm: A tissue produced inside the seeds of most of the flowering plants following fertilization. It surrounds the embryo and provides nutrition in the form of starch, though it can also contain oils and protein. ; ovaryOvary: The part of the pistil which holds the ovule(s) and is located above or below or at the point of connection with the base of the petals and sepals. 1-locularLocular: A locule is a small cavity or compartment within an ovary. ; leaf venationVenation: The arrangement of veins in the leaf. with primary lateral veinVein: Venation types: A. midrib; B. primary lateral veins; C. interprimaray veins; D. secondary veins; E. collective veins; F. tertiary veins; G. basal ribs; H. basal veins. s forming submarginal collective veinVein: Venation types: A. midrib; B. primary lateral veins; C. interprimaray veins; D. secondary veins; E. collective veins; F. tertiary veins; G. basal ribs; H. basal veins. and 1-2 marginal veinVein: Venation types: A. midrib; B. primary lateral veins; C. interprimaray veins; D. secondary veins; E. collective veins; F. tertiary veins; G. basal ribs; H. basal veins. s on each side of blade
86A. StamenStamen: The pollen-producing reproductive organ of a flower. s either completely connateConnate: United so as to form a single part. with marginal thecaeThecae: One of the lobes of an anther in which pollen is produced. or only partially connateConnate: United so as to form a single part. by filaments; bisexual flowers often present between male and female zones of the spadixSpadix: A spike of minute flowers closely arranged around a fleshy axis and typically enclosed in a spathe. .82. 📌Carlephyton
86B. StamenStamen: The pollen-producing reproductive organ of a flower. s completely connateConnate: United so as to form a single part. into truncate synandriaSynandria: Sets of stamens of which the anthers have been fused. or synandriaSynandria: Sets of stamens of which the anthers have been fused. reduced to one stamenStamen: The pollen-producing reproductive organ of a flower.
87A. SynandriaSynandria: Sets of stamens of which the anthers have been fused. reduced to one stamenStamen: The pollen-producing reproductive organ of a flower. , thecaeThecae: One of the lobes of an anther in which pollen is produced. apicalApical: Of, relating to, or denoting an apex. on conical filament; spadixSpadix: A spike of minute flowers closely arranged around a fleshy axis and typically enclosed in a spathe. fertile to apexApex: End forming a point. ; leaf blade always cordateCordate: .83. 📌Colletogyne
87B. ThecaeThecae: One of the lobes of an anther in which pollen is produced. apicalApical: Of, relating to, or denoting an apex. on a truncate synandriumSynandrium: Sets of stamens of which the anthers have been fused. ; spadixSpadix: A spike of minute flowers closely arranged around a fleshy axis and typically enclosed in a spathe. appendixAppendix: Sterile appendage at the end of a spadix. present or not; leaf blade cordateCordate: , hastateHastate: , trifidTrifid: , trisect or pedatifid .81. 📌Arophyton
85B. South American plants; seed with abundant endospermEndosperm: A tissue produced inside the seeds of most of the flowering plants following fertilization. It surrounds the embryo and provides nutrition in the form of starch, though it can also contain oils and protein. ; ovaryOvary: The part of the pistil which holds the ovule(s) and is located above or below or at the point of connection with the base of the petals and sepals. with more than 1 loculeLocule: A small cavity or compartment within an ovary. (except Spathicarpa); leaf venationVenation: The arrangement of veins in the leaf. with primary lateral veinVein: Venation types: A. midrib; B. primary lateral veins; C. interprimaray veins; D. secondary veins; E. collective veins; F. tertiary veins; G. basal ribs; H. basal veins. s usually forming single marginal veinVein: Venation types: A. midrib; B. primary lateral veins; C. interprimaray veins; D. secondary veins; E. collective veins; F. tertiary veins; G. basal ribs; H. basal veins. on each side, submarginal collective veinVein: Venation types: A. midrib; B. primary lateral veins; C. interprimaray veins; D. secondary veins; E. collective veins; F. tertiary veins; G. basal ribs; H. basal veins. s usually absent
88A. SpadixSpadix: A spike of minute flowers closely arranged around a fleshy axis and typically enclosed in a spathe. free or only female zone adnateAdnate: Joined by having grown together. to spatheSpathe: A large sheathing bract enclosing the flower cluster.
89A. OvuleOvule: The structure that gives rise to and contains the female reproductive cells s anatropous
90A. OvuleOvule: The structure that gives rise to and contains the female reproductive cells s 2 per loculeLocule: A small cavity or compartment within an ovary. ; leaf blade entire, linearLinear: to subsagittateSagittate: ; spadixSpadix: A spike of minute flowers closely arranged around a fleshy axis and typically enclosed in a spathe. , with terminal appendixAppendix: Sterile appendage at the end of a spadix. of synandrodeSynandrode: A set of fused sterile stamens. s .37. 📌Mangonia
90B. OvuleOvule: The structure that gives rise to and contains the female reproductive cells s 1 per loculeLocule: A small cavity or compartment within an ovary. ; leaf blade entire, pinnatifidPinnatifid: to subdracontioidDracontioid: ; spadixSpadix: A spike of minute flowers closely arranged around a fleshy axis and typically enclosed in a spathe. fertile to apexApex: End forming a point.
91A. Leaf blade pinnatifidPinnatifid: to bipinnatifidPinnatifid: or subdracontioidDracontioid: ; synandriaSynandria: Sets of stamens of which the anthers have been fused. elongate; stigmaStigma: The receptive tip of a carpel, or of several fused carpels, in the gynoecium of a flower. capitate or lobed; staminodeStaminode: A sterile or abortive stamen, frequently resembling a stamen without its anther. s of female flowers free (connateConnate: United so as to form a single part. in Taccarum caudatum) .38. 📌Taccarum
91B. Leaf blade usually pinnatifidPinnatifid: , rarely entire; synandriaSynandria: Sets of stamens of which the anthers have been fused. short and domed; stigmaStigma: The receptive tip of a carpel, or of several fused carpels, in the gynoecium of a flower. deeply lobed; staminodeStaminode: A sterile or abortive stamen, frequently resembling a stamen without its anther. s of female flowers free or connateConnate: United so as to form a single part. .39. 📌Asterostigma
89B. OvuleOvule: The structure that gives rise to and contains the female reproductive cells s orthotropous
92A. StyleStyle: The usually slender part of a pistil, connecting the ovary and the stigma. s and synandriaSynandria: Sets of stamens of which the anthers have been fused. elongate; leaf blade pinnatifidPinnatifid: or -sect or bipinnatifidPinnatifid: or entire and cordateCordate:
93A. StaminodeStaminode: A sterile or abortive stamen, frequently resembling a stamen without its anther. s in female flowers filiform to subclavateClavate: Club-shaped; thicker at the apex than at the base. ; synandriaSynandria: Sets of stamens of which the anthers have been fused. with free filament apicesApices: Plural of apex. End forming a point. or not; leaf blade pinnatifidPinnatifid: , pinnatisectPinnatisect: Having lobes with incisions that extend almost, or up to midrib. or bipinnatifidPinnatifid: .40. 📌Gorgonidium
93B. StaminodeStaminode: A sterile or abortive stamen, frequently resembling a stamen without its anther. s in female flowers elongate-triangular; synandriaSynandria: Sets of stamens of which the anthers have been fused. entirely connateConnate: United so as to form a single part. ; leaf blade entire, cordateCordate: .41. 📌Synandrospadix
92B. StyleStyle: The usually slender part of a pistil, connecting the ovary and the stigma. s and synandriaSynandria: Sets of stamens of which the anthers have been fused. short and squat or synandriaSynandria: Sets of stamens of which the anthers have been fused. very flat; staminodeStaminode: A sterile or abortive stamen, frequently resembling a stamen without its anther. s in female flowers obovateOvate: or trapezoidTrapezoid: ; leaf blade pedatisect or subpalmatifid .42. 📌Gearum
88B. SpadixSpadix: A spike of minute flowers closely arranged around a fleshy axis and typically enclosed in a spathe. usually entirely adnateAdnate: Joined by having grown together. to spatheSpathe: A large sheathing bract enclosing the flower cluster. (male zone free in Spathantheum intermedium)
94A. OvaryOvary: The part of the pistil which holds the ovule(s) and is located above or below or at the point of connection with the base of the petals and sepals. 6-8-locularLocular: A locule is a small cavity or compartment within an ovary. ; female flowers below, male above; leaf blade entire or pinnatePinnate: Pinnate Venation. ly lobed .43. 📌Spathantheum
94B. OvaryOvary: The part of the pistil which holds the ovule(s) and is located above or below or at the point of connection with the base of the petals and sepals. 1-locularLocular: A locule is a small cavity or compartment within an ovary. ; female and male flowers intermixed (2 central rows of male flowers, 2 outer rows of female flowers); leaf blade entire.44. 📌Spathicarpa
78B. LaticiferLaticifer: A laticifer is a type of elongated secretory cell found in the leaves and/or stems of plants that produce latex and rubber as secondary metabolites. s anastomosingAnastomosing: Connecting with one another, particularly applied to veins.
95A. Plants climbing hemiepiphyteEpiphyte: A plant that grows harmlessly upon another plant and derives its moisture and nutrients from the air, rain, and sometimes from debris accumulating around it. s, sometimes creeping on ground in submature growth; internodes long; berries connateConnate: United so as to form a single part. into a syncarp .67. 📌Syngonium
95B. Plants terrestrial or geophytic, rarely aquatic, not climbing; internodes very short; berries free from each other
96A. SpadixSpadix: A spike of minute flowers closely arranged around a fleshy axis and typically enclosed in a spathe. without an appendixAppendix: Sterile appendage at the end of a spadix. (present in Hapaline appendiculata, included here, occasionally absent in Colocasia esculenta, excluded here)
97A. OvaryOvary: The part of the pistil which holds the ovule(s) and is located above or below or at the point of connection with the base of the petals and sepals. completely to incompletely 2- to several-locularLocular: A locule is a small cavity or compartment within an ovary. with deeply intrusive parietal placentaPlacenta: The part of the ovary where the funiculus attaches is referred to as the placenta. s (1-locularLocular: A locule is a small cavity or compartment within an ovary. with basalBasal: Forming or belonging to a bottom layer or base. placentaPlacenta: The part of the ovary where the funiculus attaches is referred to as the placenta. in Jasarum, Scaphispatha and a few species of Caladium and Xanthosoma); neotropical plants
98A. HelophyteHelophyte: A bog plant; especially a perennial marsh plant having its overwintering buds under water. s or terrestrial; leaf blade ovateOvate: , sagittateSagittate: to hastateHastate: or pedatifid
99A. Pollen shed in tetrads; styleStyle: The usually slender part of a pistil, connecting the ovary and the stigma. usually laterally thickened or expanded into a diaphanous mantle; leaf blade rarely peltatePeltate: , sometimes trifidTrifid: or -sect, or pedatifid or -sect
100A. SpatheSpathe: A large sheathing bract enclosing the flower cluster. tube subgloboseSubglobose: Imperfectly globose ( globe-shaped ). , inflated; female zone of spadixSpadix: A spike of minute flowers closely arranged around a fleshy axis and typically enclosed in a spathe. free; styleStyle: The usually slender part of a pistil, connecting the ovary and the stigma. s normally discoid (laterally swollen) and coherent (except Xanthosoma plowmanii); synandrodeSynandrode: A set of fused sterile stamens. s (sterile flowers) between male and female flowers well-developed, prismatic .65. 📌Xanthosoma
100B. SpatheSpathe: A large sheathing bract enclosing the flower cluster. tube narrow, elongate; female zone of spadixSpadix: A spike of minute flowers closely arranged around a fleshy axis and typically enclosed in a spathe. mostly adnateAdnate: Joined by having grown together. to spatheSpathe: A large sheathing bract enclosing the flower cluster. ; stylarStylar: The usually slender part of a pistil, connecting the ovary and the stigma. region thin, spreading, diaphanous, mantle-like; synandrodeSynandrode: A set of fused sterile stamens. s (sterile flowers) betweeen male and female flowers usually irregular or fungiform, not prismatic .66. 📌Chlorospatha
99B. Pollen shed in monads; stylarStylar: The usually slender part of a pistil, connecting the ovary and the stigma. region not laterally expanded; leaf blade usually peltatePeltate: , rarely trisect, never pedatifid or -sect
101A. SpatheSpathe: A large sheathing bract enclosing the flower cluster. tube always convoluteConvolute: The process of convolute vernation involves the wrapping of one margin of the leaf's blade over the other. This folding mechanism makes the emerging leaf look like a tube. ; stylarStylar: The usually slender part of a pistil, connecting the ovary and the stigma. region as broad as ovaryOvary: The part of the pistil which holds the ovule(s) and is located above or below or at the point of connection with the base of the petals and sepals. (Caladium paradoxum has discoid, coherent stylarStylar: The usually slender part of a pistil, connecting the ovary and the stigma. regions); synandrodeSynandrode: A set of fused sterile stamens. s (sterile flowers) between male and female flowers well-developed, prismatic; placentaPlacenta: The part of the ovary where the funiculus attaches is referred to as the placenta. s 1-2(-3), parietal; seeds several (rarely 1-2) .63. 📌Caladium
101B. SpatheSpathe: A large sheathing bract enclosing the flower cluster. tube gaping widely at anthesisAnthesis: The period during which pollen is presented and/or the stigma is receptive. ; styleStyle: The usually slender part of a pistil, connecting the ovary and the stigma. much narrower than ovaryOvary: The part of the pistil which holds the ovule(s) and is located above or below or at the point of connection with the base of the petals and sepals. ; synandrodeSynandrode: A set of fused sterile stamens. s (sterile flowers) lacking, male and female zones contiguous; placentaPlacenta: The part of the ovary where the funiculus attaches is referred to as the placenta. 1, basalBasal: Forming or belonging to a bottom layer or base. ; seed solitary .62. 📌Scaphispatha
98B. Submerged aquatics; leaf blade linearLinear: .64. 📌Jasarum
97B. OvaryOvary: The part of the pistil which holds the ovule(s) and is located above or below or at the point of connection with the base of the petals and sepals. clearly 1-locularLocular: A locule is a small cavity or compartment within an ovary. , placentaPlacenta: The part of the ovary where the funiculus attaches is referred to as the placenta. s not intrusive; palaeotropical plants
102A. OvuleOvule: The structure that gives rise to and contains the female reproductive cells s more than 1; leaf blade peltatePeltate:
103A. Female flowers with staminodeStaminode: A sterile or abortive stamen, frequently resembling a stamen without its anther. s; spatheSpathe: A large sheathing bract enclosing the flower cluster. not constricted; stem trunk-like or creeping .101. 📌Steudnera
103B. Female flowers without staminodeStaminode: A sterile or abortive stamen, frequently resembling a stamen without its anther. s; spatheSpathe: A large sheathing bract enclosing the flower cluster. with 1 or 2 constrictions; stem tuberous, producing erect or spreading stolons bearing small tubercles covered in hooked scales .102. 📌Remusatia
102B. OvuleOvule: The structure that gives rise to and contains the female reproductive cells solitary; leaf blade not peltatePeltate: .68. 📌Hapaline
96B. SpadixSpadix: A spike of minute flowers closely arranged around a fleshy axis and typically enclosed in a spathe. with an appendixAppendix: Sterile appendage at the end of a spadix. (occasionally absent in Colocasia esculenta); palaeotropical plants
104A. Leaf blade pedatisect to radiatisect; female flowers each with several large staminodeStaminode: A sterile or abortive stamen, frequently resembling a stamen without its anther. s .100. 📌Protarum
104B. Leaf blade entire or pinnatifidPinnatifid: ; female flowers without staminodeStaminode: A sterile or abortive stamen, frequently resembling a stamen without its anther. s (except single small ones in Colocasia esculenta)
105A. PlacentaPlacenta: The part of the ovary where the funiculus attaches is referred to as the placenta. s parietal; ovuleOvule: The structure that gives rise to and contains the female reproductive cells s many; leaf blade always entire .103. 📌Colocasia
105B. PlacentaPlacenta: The part of the ovary where the funiculus attaches is referred to as the placenta. basalBasal: Forming or belonging to a bottom layer or base. ; ovuleOvule: The structure that gives rise to and contains the female reproductive cells s few; leaf blade entire or pinnatifidPinnatifid: .104. 📌Alocasia
 


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