Key to the Species of Biarum


Based on P.C. Boyce, 2008

Click on 📌 to highlight and compare characteristics.
Click on the line numbers to select characteristics.



1A. StaminodeStaminode: A sterile or abortive stamen, frequently resembling a stamen without its anther. s occurring above and below the staminate flower zone .. 2
2A. StaminodeStaminode: A sterile or abortive stamen, frequently resembling a stamen without its anther. s hooked .. 3
3A. StaminodeStaminode: A sterile or abortive stamen, frequently resembling a stamen without its anther. s simple, very rarely branched .. 4
4A. Leaf laminaLamina: Leaf blade. 15 - 25 cm 11 - 15 mm; spadixSpadix: A spike of minute flowers closely arranged around a fleshy axis and typically enclosed in a spathe. appendixAppendix: Sterile appendage at the end of a spadix. 10 - 41 cm 2 - 3 mm; leaves in mature individuals oblongOblong: -lanceolateLanceolate: early in the season, linearLinear: -lanceolateLanceolate: later in the season .. 📌1. tenuifolium subsp. tenuifolium
4B. Leaf laminaLamina: Leaf blade. 20 - 40 cm 16 - 21 mm; spadixSpadix: A spike of minute flowers closely arranged around a fleshy axis and typically enclosed in a spathe. appendixAppendix: Sterile appendage at the end of a spadix. 10 - 12 4 - 9 mm; leaves in mature individuals always oblongOblong: -lanceolateLanceolate: .. 📌1. tenuifolium subsp. zelebori
3B. StaminodeStaminode: A sterile or abortive stamen, frequently resembling a stamen without its anther. s always 2 - 3 branched .. 5
5A. Leaf laminaLamina: Leaf blade. oblanceolateLanceolate: to linearLinear: -lanceolateLanceolate: ; staminodeStaminode: A sterile or abortive stamen, frequently resembling a stamen without its anther. s 2-branched, arranged in c. 8 regular whorls. Plants of heavy terra rossa soils .. 📌1. tenuifolium subsp. arundanum
5B. Leaf laminaLamina: Leaf blade. linearLinear: ; staminodeStaminode: A sterile or abortive stamen, frequently resembling a stamen without its anther. s 2 - 3-branched, arranged in c. 7 irregular whorls. Plants of loose sandy soils .. 📌1. tenuifolium subsp. galianii
2B. StaminodeStaminode: A sterile or abortive stamen, frequently resembling a stamen without its anther. s not hooked .. 6
6A. StaminodeStaminode: A sterile or abortive stamen, frequently resembling a stamen without its anther. s peg-like; leaf laminaLamina: Leaf blade. spathulate, erect, margins gently undulate .. 📌1. tenuifolium subsp. abbreviatum
6B. StaminodeStaminode: A sterile or abortive stamen, frequently resembling a stamen without its anther. s fi lamentous; leaf laminaLamina: Leaf blade. linearLinear: -oblongOblong: , usually adpressed to the ground, margins strongly undulate-crispulate .. 📌1. tenuifolium subsp. idomenaeum
1B. StaminodeStaminode: A sterile or abortive stamen, frequently resembling a stamen without its anther. s absent above the staminate flower zone; present or absent below .. 7
7A. StaminodeStaminode: A sterile or abortive stamen, frequently resembling a stamen without its anther. s hooked, stiff, thickened. ThecaeThecae: One of the lobes of an anther in which pollen is produced. dehiscing by ventral longitudinal slits, connective rostrate .. 📌2. rhopalospadix
7B. StaminodeStaminode: A sterile or abortive stamen, frequently resembling a stamen without its anther. s fi liform, fl exuous, or absent, never hooked and thickened. ThecaeThecae: One of the lobes of an anther in which pollen is produced. dehiscing by apicalApical: Of, relating to, or denoting an apex. pores, connective barely prominent or flush with the antherAnther: The part of a stamen that contains the pollen. surface .. 8
8A. SpadixSpadix: A spike of minute flowers closely arranged around a fleshy axis and typically enclosed in a spathe. appendixAppendix: Sterile appendage at the end of a spadix. massively thickened with refl exed basalBasal: Forming or belonging to a bottom layer or base. 'hairs' ; spatheSpathe: A large sheathing bract enclosing the flower cluster. limb much reduced, recurved .. 📌19. ditschianum
8B. SpadixSpadix: A spike of minute flowers closely arranged around a fleshy axis and typically enclosed in a spathe. appendixAppendix: Sterile appendage at the end of a spadix. with no ornamentation; spatheSpathe: A large sheathing bract enclosing the flower cluster. limb well developed or, if reduced, then erect, cucullateCucullate: Resembling a cowl or hood. .. 9
9A. SpatheSpathe: A large sheathing bract enclosing the flower cluster. limb usually much shorter than the spatheSpathe: A large sheathing bract enclosing the flower cluster. tube, margins recurved, spatheSpathe: A large sheathing bract enclosing the flower cluster. tube enclosing much of the spadixSpadix: A spike of minute flowers closely arranged around a fleshy axis and typically enclosed in a spathe. .. 10
10A. SpatheSpathe: A large sheathing bract enclosing the flower cluster. 5 - 6 cm long, spadixSpadix: A spike of minute flowers closely arranged around a fleshy axis and typically enclosed in a spathe. appendixAppendix: Sterile appendage at the end of a spadix. 3 - 3.5 cm 2 mm .. 📌20. davisii
10B. SpatheSpathe: A large sheathing bract enclosing the flower cluster. 7 - 8 cm long, spadixSpadix: A spike of minute flowers closely arranged around a fleshy axis and typically enclosed in a spathe. appendixAppendix: Sterile appendage at the end of a spadix. 3.5 - 5 cm 0.5 mm .. 📌21. marmarisense
9B. SpatheSpathe: A large sheathing bract enclosing the flower cluster. limb exceeding the spatheSpathe: A large sheathing bract enclosing the flower cluster. tube in length, fl at or with the margins inrolled, spatheSpathe: A large sheathing bract enclosing the flower cluster. tube enclosing the base of the spadixSpadix: A spike of minute flowers closely arranged around a fleshy axis and typically enclosed in a spathe. only .. 11
11A. SpatheSpathe: A large sheathing bract enclosing the flower cluster. tube not inflated, the sides parallelParallel: Parallel Venation. .. 12
12A. SpatheSpathe: A large sheathing bract enclosing the flower cluster. tube margins free to the base; stigmaStigma: The receptive tip of a carpel, or of several fused carpels, in the gynoecium of a flower. s not borne on a stipeStipe: A stalk or stem. .. 📌3. aleppicum
12B. SpatheSpathe: A large sheathing bract enclosing the flower cluster. tube margins free for a quarter of their length; stigmaStigma: The receptive tip of a carpel, or of several fused carpels, in the gynoecium of a flower. s borne on a short to moderately long stipeStipe: A stalk or stem. .. 13
13A. StaminodeStaminode: A sterile or abortive stamen, frequently resembling a stamen without its anther. s directed downwards; leaves narrowly lanceolateLanceolate: - ellipticElliptic: .. 📌4. angustatum
13B. StaminodeStaminode: A sterile or abortive stamen, frequently resembling a stamen without its anther. s directed upwards; leaves ellipticElliptic: to broadly oblongOblong: -ellipticElliptic: .. 📌5. carduchorum
11B. SpatheSpathe: A large sheathing bract enclosing the flower cluster. tube inflated, the sides gibbous .. 14
14A. SpatheSpathe: A large sheathing bract enclosing the flower cluster. tube distinctly wider than the spatheSpathe: A large sheathing bract enclosing the flower cluster. limb, the margins joined for their entire length; spatheSpathe: A large sheathing bract enclosing the flower cluster. limb appearing linearLinear: due to inrolled margins; spadixSpadix: A spike of minute flowers closely arranged around a fleshy axis and typically enclosed in a spathe. appendixAppendix: Sterile appendage at the end of a spadix. fi liform .. 📌10. olivieri
14B. SpatheSpathe: A large sheathing bract enclosing the flower cluster. tube as wide as or narrower than the spatheSpathe: A large sheathing bract enclosing the flower cluster. limb, the margins free for at least a quarter of their length .. 15
15A. Foliage proteranthous .. 16
16A. Leaf laminaLamina: Leaf blade. ovateOvate: -ellipticElliptic: , oblongOblong: or linearLinear: ; staminodeStaminode: A sterile or abortive stamen, frequently resembling a stamen without its anther. s restricted to the bottom quarter to third of the interstice .. 📌11. straussii
16B. Leaf laminaLamina: Leaf blade. in mature plants linearLinear: to linearLinear: - ellipticElliptic: ; staminodeStaminode: A sterile or abortive stamen, frequently resembling a stamen without its anther. s distributed over the basalBasal: Forming or belonging to a bottom layer or base. half of the interstice .. 📌12. syriacum
15B. Foliage hysteranthous or synanthous .. 17
17A. StaminodeStaminode: A sterile or abortive stamen, frequently resembling a stamen without its anther. s distributed evenly over the interstice separating the staminate and pistilPistil: The female reproductive part of a flower. late flower zones .. 📌6. eximium
17B. StaminodeStaminode: A sterile or abortive stamen, frequently resembling a stamen without its anther. s arranged mostly above the pistilPistil: The female reproductive part of a flower. late flower zone, intersticial staminodeStaminode: A sterile or abortive stamen, frequently resembling a stamen without its anther. s adjacent to the staminate flower zone much reduced or vestigial, or staminodeStaminode: A sterile or abortive stamen, frequently resembling a stamen without its anther. s absent .. 18
18A. SpatheSpathe: A large sheathing bract enclosing the flower cluster. limb interior greenish white, spadixSpadix: A spike of minute flowers closely arranged around a fleshy axis and typically enclosed in a spathe. appendixAppendix: Sterile appendage at the end of a spadix. yellow .. 📌18. auraniticum
18B. SpatheSpathe: A large sheathing bract enclosing the flower cluster. limb interior deep purple-brown; spadixSpadix: A spike of minute flowers closely arranged around a fleshy axis and typically enclosed in a spathe. appendixAppendix: Sterile appendage at the end of a spadix. similarly coloured .. 19
19A. SpatheSpathe: A large sheathing bract enclosing the flower cluster. tube margins free for quarter to half their length .. 20
20A. SpatheSpathe: A large sheathing bract enclosing the flower cluster. tube margins free for half their length, staminodeStaminode: A sterile or abortive stamen, frequently resembling a stamen without its anther. s few, SW Spain .. 📌13. carratracense
20B. SpatheSpathe: A large sheathing bract enclosing the flower cluster. tube margins free for a quarter of their length, S Greece .. 📌15. fraasianum
19B. SpatheSpathe: A large sheathing bract enclosing the flower cluster. tube margins free for three quarters their length .. 21
21A. SpadixSpadix: A spike of minute flowers closely arranged around a fleshy axis and typically enclosed in a spathe. appendixAppendix: Sterile appendage at the end of a spadix. c. 2 - 4 mm in diam., slender-cylindric, to slender-fusiform, appearing consistent diameter .. 22
22A. SpatheSpathe: A large sheathing bract enclosing the flower cluster. tube globose; interstice twice as long as the staminate flower zone; staminodeStaminode: A sterile or abortive stamen, frequently resembling a stamen without its anther. s very few or absent .. 📌9. dispar
22B. SpatheSpathe: A large sheathing bract enclosing the flower cluster. tube oblongOblong: ; interstice equalling the staminate flower zone; staminodeStaminode: A sterile or abortive stamen, frequently resembling a stamen without its anther. s many .. 23
23A. Foliage hysteranthous; spatheSpathe: A large sheathing bract enclosing the flower cluster. limb lanceolateLanceolate: , margins smooth .. 📌7. bovei
23B. Foliage synanthous; spatheSpathe: A large sheathing bract enclosing the flower cluster. limb linearLinear: -lanceolateLanceolate: , margins crispulate .. 📌8. crispulum
21B. SpadixSpadix: A spike of minute flowers closely arranged around a fleshy axis and typically enclosed in a spathe. appendixAppendix: Sterile appendage at the end of a spadix. more than 4 mm in diam., fusiform, widest below the middle .. 24
24A. SpatheSpathe: A large sheathing bract enclosing the flower cluster. tube oblongOblong: , spatheSpathe: A large sheathing bract enclosing the flower cluster. limb narrowly lanceolateLanceolate: , acute, seldom exceeding 10 cm .. 📌14. kotschyi
24B. SpatheSpathe: A large sheathing bract enclosing the flower cluster. tube globose, spatheSpathe: A large sheathing bract enclosing the flower cluster. limb lanceolateLanceolate: , acuminateAcuminate: Tapering to a point. , exceeding 12 cm .. 25
25A. SpatheSpathe: A large sheathing bract enclosing the flower cluster. tube margins fully fused; spatheSpathe: A large sheathing bract enclosing the flower cluster. limb remaining erect during flowering .. 📌17. mendax
25B. SpatheSpathe: A large sheathing bract enclosing the flower cluster. tube margins for of their length ; spatheSpathe: A large sheathing bract enclosing the flower cluster. limb refl exing and curling during flowering .. 📌16. pyrami
 


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