Key to Adult Flowering Rhaphidophora in the Southern and Western Indonesian Archipelago

Note. Distributions given in the key refer to the review area only. Based on Boyce, 2000

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1A. Leaf laminaLamina: Leaf blade. variously pinnatePinnate: Pinnate Venation. ly divided and/or perforateForate: With aperatures or openings. d .. 2
2A. Leaves variously pinnatePinnate: Pinnate Venation. ly divided and/or perforateForate: With aperatures or openings. d. Plants flowering on adherent stems .. 3
2B. Leaves with scattered, small perforations. Plants flowering on free lateral stems. Sumatera. Nusa Tenggara .. 📌17. Rhaphidophora puberula
3A. Flowering plants climbing .. 4
4A. Leaf laminaLamina: Leaf blade. of mature plants slightly to extensively perforateForate: With aperatures or openings. d. perforations round to rhombicRhombic: extending c. quarter of laminaLamina: Leaf blade. width on each side of the midrib, abaxialAbaxial: Facing away from the stem of a plant (especially denoting the lower surface of a leaf). surface of laminaLamina: Leaf blade. with pubescentPubescent: With a hairy surface. veinVein: Venation types: A. midrib; B. primary lateral veins; C. interprimaray veins; D. secondary veins; E. collective veins; F. tertiary veins; G. basal ribs; H. basal veins. s: active shoot tips with black mucilage. Sumatera .. .. 📌7. Rhaphidophora foraminifera
4B. Leaf laminaLamina: Leaf blade. of mature plants pinnatisectPinnatisect: Having lobes with incisions that extend almost, or up to midrib. , the pinnaPinna: A primary division of a pinnate leaf. e often perforateForate: With aperatures or openings. d basalBasal: Forming or belonging to a bottom layer or base. ly and appearing stilted, laminaLamina: Leaf blade. always glabrousGlabrous: Smooth. Free from hair or down. : active shoot lips with sparse to copious netted fibre. Sumatera, Java, Sulawesi and Maluku .. 📌9. Rhaphidophora korthalsii
3B. Flowering plants rheophyticRheophytic: An aquatic plant that lives in fast moving water currents. , not climbing. Sumatera .. 📌4. Rhaphidophora beccarii
1B. Leaf laminaLamina: Leaf blade. entire .. 5
5A. AbaxialAbaxial: Facing away from the stem of a plant (especially denoting the lower surface of a leaf). surface of laminaLamina: Leaf blade. and apicalApical: Of, relating to, or denoting an apex. geniculum pubescentPubescent: With a hairy surface. . Sumatera. Nusa Tenggara .. 📌17. Rhaphidophora puberula
5B. LaminaLamina: Leaf blade. and apicalApical: Of, relating to, or denoting an apex. geniculum glabrousGlabrous: Smooth. Free from hair or down. .. 6
6A. Flowering shoots consisting of scattered fans carried on short stout shoots and held at about 90 to the leafless main stem. Sumatera .. 📌1. Rhaphidophora angustata
6B. Flowering shoots not as above .. 7
7A. Plant terrestrial or rheophyticRheophytic: An aquatic plant that lives in fast moving water currents. .. 8
8A. PedunclePeduncle: Flower stem. much shorter than petiolePetiole: Leaf stem. . spatheSpathe: A large sheathing bract enclosing the flower cluster. 6.5-7 cm. spadixSpadix: A spike of minute flowers closely arranged around a fleshy axis and typically enclosed in a spathe. 4.5- 7 cm. sessileSessile: Attached directly by its base without a stalk or peduncle. . Plant habitually rheophyticRheophytic: An aquatic plant that lives in fast moving water currents. . Sumatera .. 📌4. Rhaphidophora beccarii
8B. PedunclePeduncle: Flower stem. subequalling or exceeding petiolePetiole: Leaf stem. s. spatheSpathe: A large sheathing bract enclosing the flower cluster. 4-5 cm. spadixSpadix: A spike of minute flowers closely arranged around a fleshy axis and typically enclosed in a spathe. 2.4-3.2 cm. stipitateStipitate: Having a stalk or stem. . Plant terrestrial, perhaps occasionally rheophyticRheophytic: An aquatic plant that lives in fast moving water currents. . Sumatera (endemic) .. 📌2. Rhaphidophora araea
7B. Plant climbing .. 9
9A. Flowering plant with leaves appressed to substrate and shingling on adherent shoots. slightly scattered on flowering shoots. Maluku (ternate. Halmahera - endemic) .. 📌16. Rhaphidophora parvifolia
9B. Flowering plant not as above .. 10
10A. Stems scabrid to asperous. SpatheSpathe: A large sheathing bract enclosing the flower cluster. exterior minutely puberulentPuberulent: Covered in soft, downy hairs. . Sumatera. Sulawesi .. 📌10. Rhaphidophora lobbii
10B. Stems smooth. SpatheSpathe: A large sheathing bract enclosing the flower cluster. exterior glabrousGlabrous: Smooth. Free from hair or down. .. 11
11A. Adherent stems square or rectangular in cross-section: tips of active stems with netted prophyllProphyll: One of two first leaves to appear on a lateral shoot, usually smaller than the leaves that follow. . cataphyllCataphyll: A reduced, small leaf. Usually used to describe a modified leaf which lacks a blade and in appearance corresponds to a petiole sheath. and petiolar sheath. Sumatera .. 📌11. Rhaphidophora maingayi
11B. Adherent stems variously shaped in cross-section: lips of active stems without fibrous material .. 12
12A. SpadixSpadix: A spike of minute flowers closely arranged around a fleshy axis and typically enclosed in a spathe. stipitateStipitate: Having a stalk or stem. .. 13
13A. Leaf laminaLamina: Leaf blade. thickly coriaceousCoriaceous: Resembling or having the texture of leather. . Sumatera .. 📌5. Rhaphidophora conocephala
13B. Leaf laminaLamina: Leaf blade. variously textured but not thickly coriaceousCoriaceous: Resembling or having the texture of leather. .. 14
14A. LaminaLamina: Leaf blade. at least 7 times longer than wide, narrowly falcale-lanceolateLanceolate: to narrowly falcateFalcate: Curved like a sickle; hooked. -oblanceolateLanceolate: . Sulawesi (endemic) .. 📌18. Rhaphidophora sabit
14B. LaminaLamina: Leaf blade. no more than 5 limes longer than wide .. 15
15A. SpadixSpadix: A spike of minute flowers closely arranged around a fleshy axis and typically enclosed in a spathe. at anthesisAnthesis: The period during which pollen is presented and/or the stigma is receptive. 8-15 cm long .. 16
16A. Calaphyll, prophyllProphyll: One of two first leaves to appear on a lateral shoot, usually smaller than the leaves that follow. and petiolar sheath fibres present. Primary lateral veinVein: Venation types: A. midrib; B. primary lateral veins; C. interprimaray veins; D. secondary veins; E. collective veins; F. tertiary veins; G. basal ribs; H. basal veins. s significantly more prominent than interprimaries. StigmaStigma: The receptive tip of a carpel, or of several fused carpels, in the gynoecium of a flower. elongate to rounded, raised. Maluku (Ternate. Ceram - endemic) .. 📌.22. Rhaphidophora ternatensis
16B. CataphyllCataphyll: A reduced, small leaf. Usually used to describe a modified leaf which lacks a blade and in appearance corresponds to a petiole sheath. , prophyllProphyll: One of two first leaves to appear on a lateral shoot, usually smaller than the leaves that follow. and peliolar sheath fibres absent. Primary lateral veinVein: Venation types: A. midrib; B. primary lateral veins; C. interprimaray veins; D. secondary veins; E. collective veins; F. tertiary veins; G. basal ribs; H. basal veins. s thicker and clearly differentiated from interprimaries. StigmaStigma: The receptive tip of a carpel, or of several fused carpels, in the gynoecium of a flower. s various .. 17
17A. SpadixSpadix: A spike of minute flowers closely arranged around a fleshy axis and typically enclosed in a spathe. at anthesisAnthesis: The period during which pollen is presented and/or the stigma is receptive. 11 - 15 cm long: stigmaStigma: The receptive tip of a carpel, or of several fused carpels, in the gynoecium of a flower. round, flat. Maluku (Ternate, Buru - endemic) .. 📌3. Rhaphidophora balgooyi
17B. SpadixSpadix: A spike of minute flowers closely arranged around a fleshy axis and typically enclosed in a spathe. at anthesisAnthesis: The period during which pollen is presented and/or the stigma is receptive. 8-10 cm long; stigmaStigma: The receptive tip of a carpel, or of several fused carpels, in the gynoecium of a flower. punctiform, raised. Sulawesi (endemic) .. 📌19. Rhaphidophora sarasinorum
15B. SpadixSpadix: A spike of minute flowers closely arranged around a fleshy axis and typically enclosed in a spathe. at anthesisAnthesis: The period during which pollen is presented and/or the stigma is receptive. no more than 7.5 cm long .. 18
18A. Leaf laminaLamina: Leaf blade. on flowering shoots elliplic-lanceolateLanceolate: to oblongOblong: -ellipticElliptic: , stiffly coriaceousCoriaceous: Resembling or having the texture of leather. . base cuneateCuneate: , apexApex: End forming a point. acuminateAcuminate: Tapering to a point. to attenuate with a prominent tubule. Sulawesi (endemic) .. 📌8. Rhaphidophora koordersii
18B. Leaf laminaLamina: Leaf blade. on flowering shoots lanceolateLanceolate: to oblongOblong: lanceolateLanceolate: , falcateFalcate: Curved like a sickle; hooked. , thinly coriaceousCoriaceous: Resembling or having the texture of leather. , base acute, apexApex: End forming a point. acute to long-acuminateAcuminate: Tapering to a point. with a slight tubule. Maluku(Ternate, Tidore, Ceram - endemic) .. .. 📌15. Rhaphidophora oligosperma
12B. SpadixSpadix: A spike of minute flowers closely arranged around a fleshy axis and typically enclosed in a spathe. sessileSessile: Attached directly by its base without a stalk or peduncle. .. 19
19A. SpadixSpadix: A spike of minute flowers closely arranged around a fleshy axis and typically enclosed in a spathe. at anthesisAnthesis: The period during which pollen is presented and/or the stigma is receptive. 3.5-8.5 cm long .. 20
19B. SpadixSpadix: A spike of minute flowers closely arranged around a fleshy axis and typically enclosed in a spathe. at anthesisAnthesis: The period during which pollen is presented and/or the stigma is receptive. 9-20 cm long. Sumatera, Java, Nusa Tenggara, Maluku, Sulawesi .. 📌14. Rhaphidophora montana
20A. SpadixSpadix: A spike of minute flowers closely arranged around a fleshy axis and typically enclosed in a spathe. clavateClavate: Club-shaped; thicker at the apex than at the base. -cylindrical .. 21
21A. Leaf laminaLamina: Leaf blade. notably coriaceousCoriaceous: Resembling or having the texture of leather. . StigmaStigma: The receptive tip of a carpel, or of several fused carpels, in the gynoecium of a flower. s c. 1 mm diam., the middle excavated, the edges prominently raised. Sumatera (endemic) .. .. 📌12. Rhaphidophora megastigma
21B. Leaf laminaLamina: Leaf blade. not notably coriaceousCoriaceous: Resembling or having the texture of leather. , mostly rather thin. StigmaStigma: The receptive tip of a carpel, or of several fused carpels, in the gynoecium of a flower. s not as above or if as large then not excavated and lacking a prominently raised edge .. 22
22A. SpadixSpadix: A spike of minute flowers closely arranged around a fleshy axis and typically enclosed in a spathe. not more than 3 cm long at anthesisAnthesis: The period during which pollen is presented and/or the stigma is receptive. . Sulawesi (endemic) .. .. 📌23. Rhaphidophora teysmanniana
22B. SpadixSpadix: A spike of minute flowers closely arranged around a fleshy axis and typically enclosed in a spathe. exceeding 3 cm. often up to 6 cm long. at anthesisAnthesis: The period during which pollen is presented and/or the stigma is receptive. .. 23
23A. Flowering shoots stems rectangular in cross-section. SpatheSpathe: A large sheathing bract enclosing the flower cluster. beak short. Sumatera, Java, Nusa Tenggara .. 📌20. Rhaphidophora sylvestris
23B. Flowering shoots tereteTerete: Cylindrical or slightly tapering, and without substantial furrows or ridges. in cross-section. SpatheSpathe: A large sheathing bract enclosing the flower cluster. beak long. Sumatera (endemic) .. 📌21. Rhaphidophora talamauana
20B. SpadixSpadix: A spike of minute flowers closely arranged around a fleshy axis and typically enclosed in a spathe. cylindrical to tapering cylindrical .. 24
24A. Leaf laminaLamina: Leaf blade. 2.5-16 x 1.2-3 cm, drying uniformly pale straw-coloured. SpadixSpadix: A spike of minute flowers closely arranged around a fleshy axis and typically enclosed in a spathe. slender cylindrical, 2.5-7 cm long. Sumatera, Sulawesi .. 📌13. Rhaphidophora minor
24B. Leaf laminaLamina: Leaf blade. 21-34 x 4-7 cm. drying darker above, paler below. SpadixSpadix: A spike of minute flowers closely arranged around a fleshy axis and typically enclosed in a spathe. tapering cylindrical. 6.5-8.5 cm long .. 25
25A. PetiolePetiole: Leaf stem. drying pale with apicalApical: Of, relating to, or denoting an apex. geniculum much darker. leaf laminaLamina: Leaf blade. drying strongly discolorous. pale yellow-hrown abaxialAbaxial: Facing away from the stem of a plant (especially denoting the lower surface of a leaf). ly. mid-brown adaxially. SpadixSpadix: A spike of minute flowers closely arranged around a fleshy axis and typically enclosed in a spathe. strongly tapering-cylindrical: stigmaStigma: The receptive tip of a carpel, or of several fused carpels, in the gynoecium of a flower. discoid. flat. Sumatera (Pulau Enggano - endemic) .. 📌24. Rhaphidophora ustulata
25B. PetiolePetiole: Leaf stem. drying uniformly mid-brown. leaf laminaLamina: Leaf blade. drying barely discolorous. SpadixSpadix: A spike of minute flowers closely arranged around a fleshy axis and typically enclosed in a spathe. slightly tapering-cylindrical; stigmaStigma: The receptive tip of a carpel, or of several fused carpels, in the gynoecium of a flower. punctiform. raised. Nusa Tenggara (Pulau Flores - endemic) .. 📌6. Rhaphidophora floresensis
 


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