Key to Species of Anthurium Section Pachyneurium

Based on
Croat T.B., 1991, A Revision of Anthurium Section Pachyneurium (Araceae), Annals of the Missouri Botanical Garden 78-3: 539-855

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Click on the line numbers to select characteristics.



1A. Species of Mexico, Central America, Panama, and West Indies.
2A. Blades ovateOvate: to narrowly ovateOvate: or oblongOblong: -ovateOvate: , sagittateSagittate: to cordateCordate: , subcordateCordate: or hastateHastate: at base; mostly less than 2 x longer than wide (to 3 x longer than wide in Anthurium selloum from West Indies); the posteriorPosterior: lobes usually more than 1/4 as long as the anteriorAnterior: lobes.
3A. SpadixSpadix: A spike of minute flowers closely arranged around a fleshy axis and typically enclosed in a spathe. with pistilPistil: The female reproductive part of a flower. s early emergent, well above the tepalTepal: A segment of the outer whorl in a flower that has no differentiation between petals and sepals. s at anthesisAnthesis: The period during which pollen is presented and/or the stigma is receptive. , giving the spadixSpadix: A spike of minute flowers closely arranged around a fleshy axis and typically enclosed in a spathe. a rough appearance; stamenStamen: The pollen-producing reproductive organ of a flower. s often long-exsertedExserted: Protruded, stretched out, or (esp of stamens) projecting. and remaining exsertedExserted: Protruded, stretched out, or (esp of stamens) projecting. after anthesisAnthesis: The period during which pollen is presented and/or the stigma is receptive. .
4A. Blades truncate to subcordateCordate: at base, the posteriorPosterior: lobes about as long as wide; spatheSpathe: A large sheathing bract enclosing the flower cluster. margin markedly undulate; Central Panama; 0- 1,150 m .. .. 📌🔎Anthurium colonicum K. Krause
4B. Blades deeply cordateCordate: -sagittateSagittate: to hastateHastate: at base, the posteriorPosterior: lobes l.5 - 3.0 x longer than wide; spatheSpathe: A large sheathing bract enclosing the flower cluster. with margins Hat and straight; Costa Rica to Colombia; 0-2,400 m .. 📌🔎Anthurium watermaliense hort. ex Bailey & Nash
3B. SpadixSpadix: A spike of minute flowers closely arranged around a fleshy axis and typically enclosed in a spathe. with pistilPistil: The female reproductive part of a flower. s held mostly below tepalTepal: A segment of the outer whorl in a flower that has no differentiation between petals and sepals. s at anthesisAnthesis: The period during which pollen is presented and/or the stigma is receptive. ; stamenStamen: The pollen-producing reproductive organ of a flower. s scarcely exsertedExserted: Protruded, stretched out, or (esp of stamens) projecting. and retracted to level of tepalTepal: A segment of the outer whorl in a flower that has no differentiation between petals and sepals. s after anthesisAnthesis: The period during which pollen is presented and/or the stigma is receptive. .
5A. Blades with collective veinVein: Venation types: A. midrib; B. primary lateral veins; C. interprimaray veins; D. secondary veins; E. collective veins; F. tertiary veins; G. basal ribs; H. basal veins. s arising from one of the basalBasal: Forming or belonging to a bottom layer or base. veinVein: Venation types: A. midrib; B. primary lateral veins; C. interprimaray veins; D. secondary veins; E. collective veins; F. tertiary veins; G. basal ribs; H. basal veins. s (rarely from one of the lowermost primary lateral veinVein: Venation types: A. midrib; B. primary lateral veins; C. interprimaray veins; D. secondary veins; E. collective veins; F. tertiary veins; G. basal ribs; H. basal veins. s).
6A. Blades with the basalBasal: Forming or belonging to a bottom layer or base. veinVein: Venation types: A. midrib; B. primary lateral veins; C. interprimaray veins; D. secondary veins; E. collective veins; F. tertiary veins; G. basal ribs; H. basal veins. s all free to the base; sinusSinus: narrowly triangular to closed; less than 300 m.
7A. Blades 44- 100 cm long; primary lateral veinVein: Venation types: A. midrib; B. primary lateral veins; C. interprimaray veins; D. secondary veins; E. collective veins; F. tertiary veins; G. basal ribs; H. basal veins. s 9 - 20 pairs; southeastern Costa Rica; less than 100 m .. 📌🔎Anthurium schottianum Croat & R.A. Baker
7B. Blades 17- 46 cm long; primary lateral veinVein: Venation types: A. midrib; B. primary lateral veins; C. interprimaray veins; D. secondary veins; E. collective veins; F. tertiary veins; G. basal ribs; H. basal veins. s 5- 9 pairs Cuba; less than 300 m .. 📌🔎Anthurium venosum Griseb.
6B. Blades coriaceousCoriaceous: Resembling or having the texture of leather. , at least the lowermost pairs of basalBasal: Forming or belonging to a bottom layer or base. veinVein: Venation types: A. midrib; B. primary lateral veins; C. interprimaray veins; D. secondary veins; E. collective veins; F. tertiary veins; G. basal ribs; H. basal veins. s coalesced to form a marginal posteriorPosterior: rib; sinusSinus: arcuateArcuate: Shaped like a bow; curved. to parabolic or obovateOvate: to clavateClavate: Club-shaped; thicker at the apex than at the base. ; Costa Rica and Panama; above 500 m or St. John, Virgin Islands, at less than 300 m.
8A. Blades with 4- 9 pairs of primary lateral veinVein: Venation types: A. midrib; B. primary lateral veins; C. interprimaray veins; D. secondary veins; E. collective veins; F. tertiary veins; G. basal ribs; H. basal veins. s; berries not early emergent, rounded at apexApex: End forming a point. .
9A. lnftorescence nodding before anthesisAnthesis: The period during which pollen is presented and/or the stigma is receptive. ; spatheSpathe: A large sheathing bract enclosing the flower cluster. hooding spadixSpadix: A spike of minute flowers closely arranged around a fleshy axis and typically enclosed in a spathe. at anthesisAnthesis: The period during which pollen is presented and/or the stigma is receptive. ; spadixSpadix: A spike of minute flowers closely arranged around a fleshy axis and typically enclosed in a spathe. cylindrical less than 6 x longer than broad .. 📌🔎Anthurium ranchoanum Engl.
9B. lnftorescence erect before anthesisAnthesis: The period during which pollen is presented and/or the stigma is receptive. ; spatheSpathe: A large sheathing bract enclosing the flower cluster. spreading-recurved, never hooding spadixSpadix: A spike of minute flowers closely arranged around a fleshy axis and typically enclosed in a spathe. at anthesisAnthesis: The period during which pollen is presented and/or the stigma is receptive. ; spadixSpadix: A spike of minute flowers closely arranged around a fleshy axis and typically enclosed in a spathe. markedly tapered, 10- 20x longer than broad: 600- 1,850 m .. 📌🔎Anthurium cotobrusii Croat & R.A. Baker
8B. Blades with 19- 25 pairs of primary lateral veinVein: Venation types: A. midrib; B. primary lateral veins; C. interprimaray veins; D. secondary veins; E. collective veins; F. tertiary veins; G. basal ribs; H. basal veins. s; berries early emergent, acute at apexApex: End forming a point. .. 📌🔎Anthurium nervatum Croat
5B. Blades with collective veinVein: Venation types: A. midrib; B. primary lateral veins; C. interprimaray veins; D. secondary veins; E. collective veins; F. tertiary veins; G. basal ribs; H. basal veins. s arising from one of the primary lateral veinVein: Venation types: A. midrib; B. primary lateral veins; C. interprimaray veins; D. secondary veins; E. collective veins; F. tertiary veins; G. basal ribs; H. basal veins. s in the upper 1/2 of the blade.
10A. Blades prominently lobed at base, the sinusSinus: hippocrepiform or spathulate to obovateOvate: with the lobes sometimes overlapping; Costa Rica and Panama.
11A. Blades usually less than 50 cm long, broadest at or near the base; sinusSinus: arcuateArcuate: Shaped like a bow; curved. to parabolic or hippocrepiform; spadixSpadix: A spike of minute flowers closely arranged around a fleshy axis and typically enclosed in a spathe. usually less than 20 x longer than broad: Costa Rica to Panama: 600- 1,850 m .. 📌🔎Anthurium cotobrusii Croat & R.A. Baker
11B. Blades usually more than 50 cm long, broadest at point of petiolePetiole: Leaf stem. attachment: sinusSinus: clavateClavate: Club-shaped; thicker at the apex than at the base. to obovateOvate: ; spadixSpadix: A spike of minute flowers closely arranged around a fleshy axis and typically enclosed in a spathe. usually more than 20 x as long as broad: Costa Rica: 200- 1,600 m .. 📌🔎Anthurium standleyi Croat & R.A. Baker
10B. Blades merely subcordateCordate: to almost truncate at base (rarely more deeply lobed); sinusSinus: triangular arcuateArcuate: Shaped like a bow; curved. to arcuateArcuate: Shaped like a bow; curved. with decurrentDecurrent: Extending down the stem below the point of attachment. petiolePetiole: Leaf stem. , (rarely subparabolic in Anthurium selloum), lobes never even approaching overlap: West Indies (St. John, Virgin Islands): less than 300 m .. 📌🔎Anthurium selloum K. Koch
2B. Blades elongate, mostly 3 or more x longer than wide, mostly oblongOblong: -ellipticElliptic: to obovateOvate: or oblanceolateLanceolate: , only rarely subcordateCordate: at base (if so, the posteriorPosterior: lobes less than 1/10 as long as anteriorAnterior: lobes).
12A. Collective veinVein: Venation types: A. midrib; B. primary lateral veins; C. interprimaray veins; D. secondary veins; E. collective veins; F. tertiary veins; G. basal ribs; H. basal veins. s arising from the lower 1/4 of the blade, often from near the base.
13A. SpadixSpadix: A spike of minute flowers closely arranged around a fleshy axis and typically enclosed in a spathe. purplish or brownish at anthesisAnthesis: The period during which pollen is presented and/or the stigma is receptive. .
14A. Primary lateral veinVein: Venation types: A. midrib; B. primary lateral veins; C. interprimaray veins; D. secondary veins; E. collective veins; F. tertiary veins; G. basal ribs; H. basal veins. s prominently sunken above. prominently raised beneath.
15A. PetiolePetiole: Leaf stem. s subquadrangularQuadrangular: Having four angles and four sides. , 3- 5-ribbed adaxially; Panama and Costa Rica in Cordillera de Talamanca: 1,300- 2,000 m .. 📌🔎Anthurium seibertii Croat & R.A. Baker
15B. PetiolePetiole: Leaf stem. s tereteTerete: Cylindrical or slightly tapering, and without substantial furrows or ridges. or subtereteTerete: Cylindrical or slightly tapering, and without substantial furrows or ridges. , rounded or bluntly angulate adaxially.
16A. Blades more than 83 cm long: spadixSpadix: A spike of minute flowers closely arranged around a fleshy axis and typically enclosed in a spathe. 30- 75x longer than broad, to 60 cm long, the fruiting spadixSpadix: A spike of minute flowers closely arranged around a fleshy axis and typically enclosed in a spathe. more than 30 cm long: Atlantic slope of Costa Rica and in western Panama; 200- 600 m .. 📌🔎Anthurium prolatum Croat & R.A. Baker
16B. Blades less than 80 cm long: spadixSpadix: A spike of minute flowers closely arranged around a fleshy axis and typically enclosed in a spathe. less than 20 x longer than broad at anthesisAnthesis: The period during which pollen is presented and/or the stigma is receptive. , to 20 cm long, the fruiting spadixSpadix: A spike of minute flowers closely arranged around a fleshy axis and typically enclosed in a spathe. usually less than 25 cm long: above 900 m.
17A. Leaf blades usually more than 50 cm long, usually pendent; spatheSpathe: A large sheathing bract enclosing the flower cluster. oblongOblong: -lanceolateLanceolate: to lanceolateLanceolate: ; spadixSpadix: A spike of minute flowers closely arranged around a fleshy axis and typically enclosed in a spathe. usually more than 9 cm long; Costa Rica and Panama; 635- 2,700 m .. 📌🔎Anthurium protensum Schott subsp. protensum
17B. Leaf blades usually less than 50 cm long; usually erect; spatheSpathe: A large sheathing bract enclosing the flower cluster. ovateOvate: to broadly lanceolateLanceolate: ; spadixSpadix: A spike of minute flowers closely arranged around a fleshy axis and typically enclosed in a spathe. usually less than 6.5 cm long; mostly western Panama; 1, 100- 2,000 m .. 📌🔎Anthurium protensum Schott subsp. arcualum Croat
14B. Primary lateral veinVein: Venation types: A. midrib; B. primary lateral veins; C. interprimaray veins; D. secondary veins; E. collective veins; F. tertiary veins; G. basal ribs; H. basal veins. s and collective veinVein: Venation types: A. midrib; B. primary lateral veins; C. interprimaray veins; D. secondary veins; E. collective veins; F. tertiary veins; G. basal ribs; H. basal veins. s not prominently sunken above, slightly raised beneath.
18A. Blades oblongOblong: , broadest midway; primary lateral veinVein: Venation types: A. midrib; B. primary lateral veins; C. interprimaray veins; D. secondary veins; E. collective veins; F. tertiary veins; G. basal ribs; H. basal veins. s 13- 16 pairs, drying inconspicuous, scarcely more conspicuous than interprimary veinVein: Venation types: A. midrib; B. primary lateral veins; C. interprimaray veins; D. secondary veins; E. collective veins; F. tertiary veins; G. basal ribs; H. basal veins. s; petiolePetiole: Leaf stem. s tereteTerete: Cylindrical or slightly tapering, and without substantial furrows or ridges. ; spatheSpathe: A large sheathing bract enclosing the flower cluster. ovateOvate: to ovateOvate: -ellipticElliptic: , hooding spadixSpadix: A spike of minute flowers closely arranged around a fleshy axis and typically enclosed in a spathe. ; Cordillera Tilariin and Cordillera Central in northern Costa Rica .. .. 📌🔎Anthurium brenesii Croat & R.A. Baker
18B. Blades oblanceolateLanceolate: to oblongOblong: -oblanceolateLanceolate: , broadest well above middle; primary lateral veinVein: Venation types: A. midrib; B. primary lateral veins; C. interprimaray veins; D. secondary veins; E. collective veins; F. tertiary veins; G. basal ribs; H. basal veins. s 9- 14 pairs, conspicuous, much more prominent than the interprimary veinVein: Venation types: A. midrib; B. primary lateral veins; C. interprimaray veins; D. secondary veins; E. collective veins; F. tertiary veins; G. basal ribs; H. basal veins. s; petiolePetiole: Leaf stem. s subquadrangularQuadrangular: Having four angles and four sides. to trapezoidTrapezoid: al; spatheSpathe: A large sheathing bract enclosing the flower cluster. lanceolateLanceolate: , spreading, not hooding spadixSpadix: A spike of minute flowers closely arranged around a fleshy axis and typically enclosed in a spathe. ; western Mexico .. .. 📌🔎Anthurium schlechtendalii Kunth subsp. jimenezii (Matuda) Croat
13B. SpadixSpadix: A spike of minute flowers closely arranged around a fleshy axis and typically enclosed in a spathe. greenish to green or whitish at anthesisAnthesis: The period during which pollen is presented and/or the stigma is receptive. .
19A. PetiolePetiole: Leaf stem. with geniculum situated at least 7 cm below base of blade; Pacific slope of southwestern Costa Rica; 300-1,300m .. 📌🔎Anthurium oerstedianum Schott
19B. PetiolePetiole: Leaf stem. with geniculum immediately subtendSubtend: (of a bract) extend under (a flower) so as to support or enfold it. ing leaf blade.
20A. Plants pendent epiphyteEpiphyte: A plant that grows harmlessly upon another plant and derives its moisture and nutrients from the air, rain, and sometimes from debris accumulating around it. s; blades usually more than 1 m long and 25 cm wide.
21A. PetiolePetiole: Leaf stem. s subtereteTerete: Cylindrical or slightly tapering, and without substantial furrows or ridges. , rarely bluntly 4-sided; blades 6 -8x longer than wide, matte to semiglossy on upper surface; western Panama; 1,250- 1,500 m .. 📌🔎Anthurium pseudospectabile Croat
21B. PetiolePetiole: Leaf stem. s sharply quadrangularQuadrangular: Having four angles and four sides. ; blades 2.5 - 4 x longer than wide, semiglossy to glossy on upper surface; Nicaragua and Costa Rica; 300- 1,300 m .. 📌🔎Anthurium spectabile Schott
20B. Plants erect, epiphyticEpiphytic: A plant that grows harmlessly upon another plant and derives its moisture and nutrients from the air, rain, and sometimes from debris accumulating around it. or terrestrial; blades usually less than 80 cm long and less than 14 cm wide (sometimes wider in Anthurium jimenezii from Pacific slope of Mexico).
22A. Spad ix long-tapered. greenish; petiolePetiole: Leaf stem. s less than 7 cm long. rounded abaxialAbaxial: Facing away from the stem of a plant (especially denoting the lower surface of a leaf). ly; endemic to Central Mexico in Oaxaca on Atlantic slope: 200-1,200m .. 📌🔎Anthurium machetioides Mat uda
22B. SpadixSpadix: A spike of minute flowers closely arranged around a fleshy axis and typically enclosed in a spathe. oblongOblong: to clavateClavate: Club-shaped; thicker at the apex than at the base. , scarcely or not at all tapered, cream to white or pale yellow; petiolePetiole: Leaf stem. s more than 7 cm long, rounded to 3-ribbed abaxialAbaxial: Facing away from the stem of a plant (especially denoting the lower surface of a leaf). ly; Nicaragua and Costa Rica.
23A. PetiolePetiole: Leaf stem. s longer than the blades: spatheSpathe: A large sheathing bract enclosing the flower cluster. dark reddish purple, nearly round , ca . 7 cm wide; western Panama; 1,675 m .. 📌🔎Anthurium hammelii Croat
23B. PetiolePetiole: Leaf stem. s 1/5-1/8 as long as blades: spatheSpathe: A large sheathing bract enclosing the flower cluster. green , at most lanceolateLanceolate: -ovateOvate: , less than 3 cm wide; Nicaragua to Panama; 0-1,600m
24A. CataphyllCataphyll: A reduced, small leaf. Usually used to describe a modified leaf which lacks a blade and in appearance corresponds to a petiole sheath. s persisting intact; petiolePetiole: Leaf stem. s rounded to 3-ribbed abaxialAbaxial: Facing away from the stem of a plant (especially denoting the lower surface of a leaf). ly; blades with raphide cells visible (at least when dried); primary lateral veinVein: Venation types: A. midrib; B. primary lateral veins; C. interprimaray veins; D. secondary veins; E. collective veins; F. tertiary veins; G. basal ribs; H. basal veins. s 10 - 12 pairs, weakly sunken on upper surface; spatheSpathe: A large sheathing bract enclosing the flower cluster. lanceolateLanceolate: -ovateOvate: , reHexed; spadixSpadix: A spike of minute flowers closely arranged around a fleshy axis and typically enclosed in a spathe. creamy white, cylindroid to clavateClavate: Club-shaped; thicker at the apex than at the base. , not tapered toward apexApex: End forming a point. , held at ca. 90 angle to pedunclePeduncle: Flower stem. ; Pacific slope of southwestern Costa Rica; 0- 1,600 m .. 📌🔎Anthurium eximium Engl.
24B. CataphyllCataphyll: A reduced, small leaf. Usually used to describe a modified leaf which lacks a blade and in appearance corresponds to a petiole sheath. s weathering to fibers; petiolePetiole: Leaf stem. s triangular or sharply 3- 5-ribbed abaxialAbaxial: Facing away from the stem of a plant (especially denoting the lower surface of a leaf). ly; blades with raphide cells not visible; primary lateral veinVein: Venation types: A. midrib; B. primary lateral veins; C. interprimaray veins; D. secondary veins; E. collective veins; F. tertiary veins; G. basal ribs; H. basal veins. s 20- 30 pairs, prominently sunken on upper surface: spatheSpathe: A large sheathing bract enclosing the flower cluster. lanceolateLanceolate: to broadly lanceolateLanceolate: , erect and cucullateCucullate: Resembling a cowl or hood. ; spadixSpadix: A spike of minute flowers closely arranged around a fleshy axis and typically enclosed in a spathe. pale yellow to creamy white, erect or suberect, slightly tapered toward apexApex: End forming a point. , held at ca. 180" angle to pedunclePeduncle: Flower stem. ; Nicaragua to Panama: 0- 380 m .. 📌🔎Anthurium spathiphyllum N.E. Br.
12B. Collective veinVein: Venation types: A. midrib; B. primary lateral veins; C. interprimaray veins; D. secondary veins; E. collective veins; F. tertiary veins; G. basal ribs; H. basal veins. s arising from the upper 3/4 of the blade, mostly from above the middle or lacking.
25A. SpadixSpadix: A spike of minute flowers closely arranged around a fleshy axis and typically enclosed in a spathe. purplish or rarely reddish at anthesisAnthesis: The period during which pollen is presented and/or the stigma is receptive. (mostly lavender to violet-purple).
26A. Blades with reticulateReticulate: Reticulate Venation. veinVein: Venation types: A. midrib; B. primary lateral veins; C. interprimaray veins; D. secondary veins; E. collective veins; F. tertiary veins; G. basal ribs; H. basal veins. s prominulousProminulous: Especially of the veins of a leaf: slightly prominent. on both surfaces even when fresh, drying prominently raised; West Indies (Dominican Republic, Puerto Rico, and Virgin Islands) .. 📌🔎Anthurium crenatum (L) Kunth
26B. Blades with reticulateReticulate: Reticulate Venation. veinVein: Venation types: A. midrib; B. primary lateral veins; C. interprimaray veins; D. secondary veins; E. collective veins; F. tertiary veins; G. basal ribs; H. basal veins. s on fresh leaves either obscure or sunken above, Hat to weakly raised below, drying weakly raised; Central America and northern South America (Anthurium cubense also from Cuba).
27A. PedunclePeduncle: Flower stem. usually shorter than petiolePetiole: Leaf stem. , never more than twice as long as petiolePetiole: Leaf stem. , usually less than twice as long as spadixSpadix: A spike of minute flowers closely arranged around a fleshy axis and typically enclosed in a spathe. (rarely somewhat more than twice as long as spadixSpadix: A spike of minute flowers closely arranged around a fleshy axis and typically enclosed in a spathe. ).
28A. PetiolePetiole: Leaf stem. s sharply to bluntly quadrangularQuadrangular: Having four angles and four sides. or D-shaped, rounded or usually 1- 3-ribbed abaxialAbaxial: Facing away from the stem of a plant (especially denoting the lower surface of a leaf). ly, spadixSpadix: A spike of minute flowers closely arranged around a fleshy axis and typically enclosed in a spathe. dark violet-purple at anthesisAnthesis: The period during which pollen is presented and/or the stigma is receptive. ; Panama, Atlantic Coast to Continental Divide in wetter parts of tropical moist forest and premontane wet forest, sea level to 1,500 m .. 📌🔎Anthurium purpureospathum Croat
28B. PetiolePetiole: Leaf stem. s subtereteTerete: Cylindrical or slightly tapering, and without substantial furrows or ridges. to obscurely quadrangularQuadrangular: Having four angles and four sides. , usually rounded adaxially; spadixSpadix: A spike of minute flowers closely arranged around a fleshy axis and typically enclosed in a spathe. whitish to lavender at anthesisAnthesis: The period during which pollen is presented and/or the stigma is receptive. ; Cuba, Yucatan to Panama, Colombia, and Venezuela in tropical dry forest and drier parts of tropical moist and premontane wet forest life zones; 100- 700 m .. 📌🔎Anthurium cubense Engl.
27B. PedunclePeduncle: Flower stem. mostly 2 or more x longer than petiolePetiole: Leaf stem. , usually 2 or more x longer than spadixSpadix: A spike of minute flowers closely arranged around a fleshy axis and typically enclosed in a spathe. .
29A. PetiolePetiole: Leaf stem. s either subquandrangular in cross section, or 3- or more-ribbed abaxialAbaxial: Facing away from the stem of a plant (especially denoting the lower surface of a leaf). ly or both.
30A. PetiolePetiole: Leaf stem. lacking abaxialAbaxial: Facing away from the stem of a plant (especially denoting the lower surface of a leaf). ribs. eastern Costa Rica and western Panama; 1,200- 2,300 m .. 📌🔎Anthurium validifolium K. Krause
30B. PetiolePetiole: Leaf stem. with abaxialAbaxial: Facing away from the stem of a plant (especially denoting the lower surface of a leaf). ribs.
31A. SpatheSpathe: A large sheathing bract enclosing the flower cluster. dark purple, coriaceousCoriaceous: Resembling or having the texture of leather. , cucullateCucullate: Resembling a cowl or hood. and hooding spadixSpadix: A spike of minute flowers closely arranged around a fleshy axis and typically enclosed in a spathe. at anthesisAnthesis: The period during which pollen is presented and/or the stigma is receptive. : spadixSpadix: A spike of minute flowers closely arranged around a fleshy axis and typically enclosed in a spathe. broadest at about lower 1/3; Panama, tropical wet and premontane rainforest life zones; 530- 1,350 m .. 📌🔎Anthurium luteynii Croat
31B. SpatheSpathe: A large sheathing bract enclosing the flower cluster. green (sometimes tinged purplish) reflexed, never hooding spadixSpadix: A spike of minute flowers closely arranged around a fleshy axis and typically enclosed in a spathe. .
32A. SpadixSpadix: A spike of minute flowers closely arranged around a fleshy axis and typically enclosed in a spathe. cylindr ical, 7- 20 x longer than broad at an thesis; tepalTepal: A segment of the outer whorl in a flower that has no differentiation between petals and sepals. s bearing conspicuous droplets over their surface at anthesisAnthesis: The period during which pollen is presented and/or the stigma is receptive. ; spatheSpathe: A large sheathing bract enclosing the flower cluster. oblongOblong: -ovateOvate: to oblongOblong: .ellipticElliptic: . usually less than 4 x longer than broad at anthesisAnthesis: The period during which pollen is presented and/or the stigma is receptive. ; blades drying brown; Atlantic Coast of Panama to Colombia; less than 100 m .. 📌🔎Anthurium concolor K. Krause
32B. SpadixSpadix: A spike of minute flowers closely arranged around a fleshy axis and typically enclosed in a spathe. long-tapered, usually more than 20 x longer than broad at anthesisAnthesis: The period during which pollen is presented and/or the stigma is receptive. ; tepalTepal: A segment of the outer whorl in a flower that has no differentiation between petals and sepals. s lacking droplets (except in A. upalaense after 2 or more stamenStamen: The pollen-producing reproductive organ of a flower. s have emerged); spatheSpathe: A large sheathing bract enclosing the flower cluster. s mostly lanceolateLanceolate: , 5 or more x longer than broad at an thesis.
33A. PetiolePetiole: Leaf stem. s subquandrangular, prominently 3- 5-ribbed abaxialAbaxial: Facing away from the stem of a plant (especially denoting the lower surface of a leaf). ly; blades acute at base, drying brown to graygreen on lower surface: cataphyllCataphyll: A reduced, small leaf. Usually used to describe a modified leaf which lacks a blade and in appearance corresponds to a petiole sheath. s coriaceousCoriaceous: Resembling or having the texture of leather. , persisting intact; spatheSpathe: A large sheathing bract enclosing the flower cluster. moderately thick, persisting intact; Atlantic slope of Nicaragua and Costa Rica; mostly 0- 700 m (rarely to 1,300 m .. 📌🔎Anthurium upalaense Croat & R.A. Baker
33B. PetiolePetiole: Leaf stem. s D-shaped, rounded to subtriangular, weakly 1- 5-ribbed adaxially; blades usually obtuse to rounded at base; drying pale yellowish green on lower surface: cataphyllCataphyll: A reduced, small leaf. Usually used to describe a modified leaf which lacks a blade and in appearance corresponds to a petiole sheath. s moderately thin, soon weathering to semiintact condition or to fibers or deciduous: spatheSpathe: A large sheathing bract enclosing the flower cluster. thin, soon drying and weathering; principally northern South America but extending into Central Panama; mostly 0- 1,000 m .. 📌🔎Anthurium fendleri Schott
29B. PetiolePetiole: Leaf stem. s more or less D-shaped in cross section, rounded and unribbed abaxialAbaxial: Facing away from the stem of a plant (especially denoting the lower surface of a leaf). l y.
34A. SpadixSpadix: A spike of minute flowers closely arranged around a fleshy axis and typically enclosed in a spathe. subcylindroid, less than 10 cm long; pistilPistil: The female reproductive part of a flower. s sharply pointed, early emergent; tepalTepal: A segment of the outer whorl in a flower that has no differentiation between petals and sepals. s greenish white, turning pinkish tan .. 📌Anthurium consobrinum Schott
34B. SpadixSpadix: A spike of minute flowers closely arranged around a fleshy axis and typically enclosed in a spathe. long-tapered. greater than 10 cm; pistilPistil: The female reproductive part of a flower. s rounded at apexApex: End forming a point. , not at all early emergent; tepalTepal: A segment of the outer whorl in a flower that has no differentiation between petals and sepals. s maroon or green, soon lavender.
35A. SpadixSpadix: A spike of minute flowers closely arranged around a fleshy axis and typically enclosed in a spathe. dark maroon, not at all glaucousGlaucous: Covered with a whitish powder or waxy coating. ; cataphyllCataphyll: A reduced, small leaf. Usually used to describe a modified leaf which lacks a blade and in appearance corresponds to a petiole sheath. s lanceolateLanceolate: , the young leaves emerging straight from cataphyllCataphyll: A reduced, small leaf. Usually used to describe a modified leaf which lacks a blade and in appearance corresponds to a petiole sheath. , lacking circinnate vernation (not rolled lengthwise): berries purplish, sometimes white at base; Trinidad, northeastern South America lo Brazil (Amap.i) .. 📌🔎Anthurium jenmanii Engl.
35B. SpadixSpadix: A spike of minute flowers closely arranged around a fleshy axis and typically enclosed in a spathe. pale green when young, soon lavender, weakly glaucousGlaucous: Covered with a whitish powder or waxy coating. ; cataphyllCataphyll: A reduced, small leaf. Usually used to describe a modified leaf which lacks a blade and in appearance corresponds to a petiole sheath. s cucullateCucullate: Resembling a cowl or hood. , fist-shaped, the leaves unrolling lengthwise; berries red: Mexico to Colombia; 0 - l ,600 m .. 📌🔎Anthurium salviniae Hemsley
25B. SpadixSpadix: A spike of minute flowers closely arranged around a fleshy axis and typically enclosed in a spathe. green, greenish, white, yellow, or yellow-green at anthesisAnthesis: The period during which pollen is presented and/or the stigma is receptive. .
36A. PetiolePetiole: Leaf stem. s subquadranguJar or trapezoidTrapezoid: al in cross section.
37A. SpatheSpathe: A large sheathing bract enclosing the flower cluster. narrowly to broadly ovateOvate: to ellipticElliptic: , less than 3.5 x longer than broad, held erect, enshrouding or hooding spadixSpadix: A spike of minute flowers closely arranged around a fleshy axis and typically enclosed in a spathe. (except for A. halmoorei ).
38A. SpadixSpadix: A spike of minute flowers closely arranged around a fleshy axis and typically enclosed in a spathe. clavateClavate: Club-shaped; thicker at the apex than at the base. , broadest somewhat above the middle, directed at ca. 900 angle from pedunclePeduncle: Flower stem. ; spatheSpathe: A large sheathing bract enclosing the flower cluster. boat-shaped and hooding the spadixSpadix: A spike of minute flowers closely arranged around a fleshy axis and typically enclosed in a spathe. at anthesisAnthesis: The period during which pollen is presented and/or the stigma is receptive. ; berries greenish yellow to white; petio les sharply quadrangularQuadrangular: Having four angles and four sides. with raised edges, usually sharply 3-angular abaxialAbaxial: Facing away from the stem of a plant (especially denoting the lower surface of a leaf). ly; Atlantic slope, Nicaragua to Panama; 0- 450 m, rarely to 800 m .. 📌🔎Anthurium bradeanum Croat & Grayum
38B. SpadixSpadix: A spike of minute flowers closely arranged around a fleshy axis and typically enclosed in a spathe. tapered toward the apexApex: End forming a point. . broadest at the base. held erect or suberect; spatheSpathe: A large sheathing bract enclosing the flower cluster. spreading or erect and enshrouding (but not hooding) spadixSpadix: A spike of minute flowers closely arranged around a fleshy axis and typically enclosed in a spathe. at anthesisAnthesis: The period during which pollen is presented and/or the stigma is receptive. ; berries yellow or red; pe tioles bluntly quadrangularQuadrangular: Having four angles and four sides. .
39A. SpatheSpathe: A large sheathing bract enclosing the flower cluster. stiffly erect and enshrouding spadixSpadix: A spike of minute flowers closely arranged around a fleshy axis and typically enclosed in a spathe. ; berries orange.red; El Salvador and Guatemala; Pacific slope; 500- 800 m .. .. 📌🔎Anthurium salvadorense Croat
39B. SpatheSpathe: A large sheathing bract enclosing the flower cluster. spreading, never enshrouding spadixSpadix: A spike of minute flowers closely arranged around a fleshy axis and typically enclosed in a spathe. ; berries pale yeUow; western Mexico, Nayarit, Jalisco, and Michoacan; 450- 1,000 m .. 📌🔎Anthurium halmoorei Croat
37B. SpatheSpathe: A large sheathing bract enclosing the flower cluster. lanceolateLanceolate: to narrowly triangular, usually more than 3.5 x longer than wide (sometimes to 3 x longer than wide for Anthurium nizandense ).
40A. Blades ellipticElliptic: to obovateOvate: -ell iptic. less than 3 x longer than wide. widest at about the middle; roots mostly thick, to l cm diam.; Pacific slope of Mexico (Guerrero and Oaxaca); to 850 m .. 📌🔎Anthurium nizandense Matuda
40B. Blades oblanceolateLanceolate: to obovateOvate: , usually more than 3.5 x longer than wide, always widest above the middle; roots thick or slender , 2- 8 mm diam.
41A. CataphyllCataphyll: A reduced, small leaf. Usually used to describe a modified leaf which lacks a blade and in appearance corresponds to a petiole sheath. s promptly weathering to fibers: petiolePetiole: Leaf stem. s either sharply trapezoidTrapezoid: a l and more than l.5 cm diam. or subquadrangularQuadrangular: Having four angles and four sides. with 3 sharp adaxial ribs and less than 9 mm diam.
42A. Plants terrestrial; petiolePetiole: Leaf stem. s subquadrangularQuadrangular: Having four angles and four sides. , less than 9 mm diam .; blades moderately thin, long-attenuate at base; primary lateral veinVein: Venation types: A. midrib; B. primary lateral veins; C. interprimaray veins; D. secondary veins; E. collective veins; F. tertiary veins; G. basal ribs; H. basal veins. s 8 - 12 pai rs: spatheSpathe: A large sheathing bract enclosing the flower cluster. thin, green, linearLinear: -lanceolateLanceolate: , spreading-reflexed to spreading (remaining flat, never strongly reflexed); spadixSpadix: A spike of minute flowers closely arranged around a fleshy axis and typically enclosed in a spathe. less than 8 mm diam .; Costa Rica and Panama; 0- 900 m .. 📌🔎Anthurium acutifolium Engl.
42B. Plants epiphyticEpiphytic: A plant that grows harmlessly upon another plant and derives its moisture and nutrients from the air, rain, and sometimes from debris accumulating around it. or sometimes on rocks; petiolePetiole: Leaf stem. s usually trapezoidTrapezoid: al. mostly more than 10 mm diam .: blades moderately coriaceousCoriaceous: Resembling or having the texture of leather. , acute to obtuse at base; primary lateral veinVein: Venation types: A. midrib; B. primary lateral veins; C. interprimaray veins; D. secondary veins; E. collective veins; F. tertiary veins; G. basal ribs; H. basal veins. s usually more than 12 pairs: spatheSpathe: A large sheathing bract enclosing the flower cluster. coriaceousCoriaceous: Resembling or having the texture of leather. , often heavily tinged purple, usually narrowly triangular. usually strongly reflexed (the margins rolled under in age): spadixSpadix: A spike of minute flowers closely arranged around a fleshy axis and typically enclosed in a spathe. usually more than 1.5 cm diam.; Atlantic slope. Mexico to Honduras: sea level to usually less than 1,000 m .. .. 📌🔎Anthurium schlechtendalii Kunth subsp. schlechtendalii
41B. CataphyllCataphyll: A reduced, small leaf. Usually used to describe a modified leaf which lacks a blade and in appearance corresponds to a petiole sheath. s persisting mostly intact; petiolePetiole: Leaf stem. s bluntly quadrangularQuadrangular: Having four angles and four sides. to subquadrangularQuadrangular: Having four angles and four sides. , sometimes bluntly 3-ribbed adaxially.
43A. PetiolePetiole: Leaf stem. s prominently 3-ribbed abaxialAbaxial: Facing away from the stem of a plant (especially denoting the lower surface of a leaf). ly: cataphyllCataphyll: A reduced, small leaf. Usually used to describe a modified leaf which lacks a blade and in appearance corresponds to a petiole sheath. s persisting intact , conspicuous, only rarely weathered; Nicaragua to Costa Rica; sea level to 600m .. 📌🔎Anthurium upalaense Croat & R.A. Baker
43B. PetiolePetiole: Leaf stem. s not prominently ribbed abaxialAbaxial: Facing away from the stem of a plant (especially denoting the lower surface of a leaf). ly: cataphyllCataphyll: A reduced, small leaf. Usually used to describe a modified leaf which lacks a blade and in appearance corresponds to a petiole sheath. s thin , often weathered to reticulateReticulate: Reticulate Venation. fibers in part.
44A. SpadixSpadix: A spike of minute flowers closely arranged around a fleshy axis and typically enclosed in a spathe. bluntly tapered, more than 17 mm diam. at base: roots ascending to descending, greenish to tan, 3- 8 mm diam.: fruits bright red; Mexico to Nicaragua; 0 - 1.600 m .. 📌🔎Anthurium schlechtendalii Kunth
44B. SpadixSpadix: A spike of minute flowers closely arranged around a fleshy axis and typically enclosed in a spathe. long-tapered, less than 10 mm diam. at base; roots mostly directed upward, whitish, ca. l mm diam.; fruits cream to greenish yellow or pale orange; Costa Rica to Panama; 0 - l .200 m .. 📌🔎Anthurium fatoense K. Krause
36B. PetiolePetiole: Leaf stem. s D-shaped to subterele in cross section (sometimes bluntly 4-sided in Anthurium pseudospectabile).
45A. Plants pendent: primary lateral veinVein: Venation types: A. midrib; B. primary lateral veins; C. interprimaray veins; D. secondary veins; E. collective veins; F. tertiary veins; G. basal ribs; H. basal veins. s more than 30 pairs; premontane wet or premontane rainforest life zones, western Panama: l ,250- 1,500 m .. 📌A pseudospectabile Croat
45B. Plants with leaves erect, rosulate; primary lateral veinVein: Venation types: A. midrib; B. primary lateral veins; C. interprimaray veins; D. secondary veins; E. collective veins; F. tertiary veins; G. basal ribs; H. basal veins. s less than l 5 pairs.
46A. PedunclePeduncle: Flower stem. mostly shorter than petiolePetiole: Leaf stem. s, rarely more than twice as long as spadixSpadix: A spike of minute flowers closely arranged around a fleshy axis and typically enclosed in a spathe. ; spadixSpadix: A spike of minute flowers closely arranged around a fleshy axis and typically enclosed in a spathe. cylindroid: tropical dry forest or drier parts of tropical moist forest life zones .. 📌🔎Anthurium cubense Engl.
46B. PedunclePeduncle: Flower stem. s usually much longer than petiolePetiole: Leaf stem. s, always more than twice as long as the spadixSpadix: A spike of minute flowers closely arranged around a fleshy axis and typically enclosed in a spathe. ; spadixSpadix: A spike of minute flowers closely arranged around a fleshy axis and typically enclosed in a spathe. long-tapered toward apexApex: End forming a point. .
47A. Blades ellipticElliptic: 10 narrowly ellipticElliptic: , broadest at about the middle, less than 3 x longer than wide.
48A. Blades usually more than 15 cm wide, drying brown to greenish brown and moderately coriaceousCoriaceous: Resembling or having the texture of leather. : spatheSpathe: A large sheathing bract enclosing the flower cluster. more than 2.5 cm wide; spadixSpadix: A spike of minute flowers closely arranged around a fleshy axis and typically enclosed in a spathe. green becoming reddish brown; Mexico (Guerrero and Oaxaca); to 850 m .. 📌🔎Anthurium nizandense Matuda
48B. Blades less than 15 cm wide, drying pale yellow-g reen , thin; spatheSpathe: A large sheathing bract enclosing the flower cluster. I cm wide or less; spadixSpadix: A spike of minute flowers closely arranged around a fleshy axis and typically enclosed in a spathe. yellow; Costa Rica; 300- 400 m .. 📌🔎Anthurium acutifolium Engl. var. herrerae Croat
47B. Blades oblanceolateLanceolate: to obovateOvate: , broadest above the middle, more than 3.5 x longer than wide.
49A. Inflorescence erect; spatheSpathe: A large sheathing bract enclosing the flower cluster. ovateOvate: to broadly ovateOvate: , less than 3 x longer than wide; cataphyllCataphyll: A reduced, small leaf. Usually used to describe a modified leaf which lacks a blade and in appearance corresponds to a petiole sheath. s lanceolateLanceolate: ; fruits pale yellow or unknown: western Mexico.
50A. SpatheSpathe: A large sheathing bract enclosing the flower cluster. erect, usually dark purple on inside, less than 6 cm long; spadixSpadix: A spike of minute flowers closely arranged around a fleshy axis and typically enclosed in a spathe. clavateClavate: Club-shaped; thicker at the apex than at the base. , broadest near the apexApex: End forming a point. ; fruits unknown; endemic to Michoacan; near sea level .. 📌🔎Anthurium sarukhanianum Croat & Haager
50B. SpatheSpathe: A large sheathing bract enclosing the flower cluster. spreading. green, at most tinged with purple on inside, more than 13 cm long; spadixSpadix: A spike of minute flowers closely arranged around a fleshy axis and typically enclosed in a spathe. tapered toward apexApex: End forming a point. , broadest at or near the base; fruits yellow, greenish at tip; Nayarit, Jalisco and Michoaccn; 450- 1,000 m .. 📌🔎Anthurium halmoorei Croat
49B. Infl orescence usually pendent; spatheSpathe: A large sheathing bract enclosing the flower cluster. lanceolateLanceolate: -linearLinear: . more than 5 x longer than wide; cataphyllCataphyll: A reduced, small leaf. Usually used to describe a modified leaf which lacks a blade and in appearance corresponds to a petiole sheath. s cucullateCucullate: Resembling a cowl or hood. , fist-shaped; fruits red: Mexico to Colombia; 0 - 1,400 m .. 📌🔎Anthurium salviniae Hemsley
1B. Species of South America.
51A. Collective veinVein: Venation types: A. midrib; B. primary lateral veins; C. interprimaray veins; D. secondary veins; E. collective veins; F. tertiary veins; G. basal ribs; H. basal veins. arising from the base or at least below the middle of the leaf blade.
52A. SpadixSpadix: A spike of minute flowers closely arranged around a fleshy axis and typically enclosed in a spathe. greenish or whitish at anthesisAnthesis: The period during which pollen is presented and/or the stigma is receptive. .
53A. SpadixSpadix: A spike of minute flowers closely arranged around a fleshy axis and typically enclosed in a spathe. bluish green and appearing glaucousGlaucous: Covered with a whitish powder or waxy coating. at anthesisAnthesis: The period during which pollen is presented and/or the stigma is receptive. .
54A. SpadixSpadix: A spike of minute flowers closely arranged around a fleshy axis and typically enclosed in a spathe. 14- 33 cm long; leaf blades drying coriaceousCoriaceous: Resembling or having the texture of leather. : central Colombia; 500- 2, 100 m .. 📌Anthurium glaucospadix Croat
54B. SpadixSpadix: A spike of minute flowers closely arranged around a fleshy axis and typically enclosed in a spathe. 4- 8.5 cm long; leaf blades drying thin; widespread in western Amazonia; 100- 8 70 m .. 📌🔎Anthurium oxycarpum Poeppig
53B. SpadixSpadix: A spike of minute flowers closely arranged around a fleshy axis and typically enclosed in a spathe. not bluish green or glaucousGlaucous: Covered with a whitish powder or waxy coating. at anthesisAnthesis: The period during which pollen is presented and/or the stigma is receptive. .
55A. Primary lateral veinVein: Venation types: A. midrib; B. primary lateral veins; C. interprimaray veins; D. secondary veins; E. collective veins; F. tertiary veins; G. basal ribs; H. basal veins. s prominently and sharply raised on upper surface (e ven when fresh); eastern slopes of Andes in Ecuador and northern Peru; 1,000- 2,500 m .. 📌🔎Anthurium penningtonii Croat
55B. Primary lateral veinVein: Venation types: A. midrib; B. primary lateral veins; C. interprimaray veins; D. secondary veins; E. collective veins; F. tertiary veins; G. basal ribs; H. basal veins. s not prominently and sharply raised on upper surface.
56A. Primary lateral veinVein: Venation types: A. midrib; B. primary lateral veins; C. interprimaray veins; D. secondary veins; E. collective veins; F. tertiary veins; G. basal ribs; H. basal veins. s toward base of leaf blade perpendicular to midrib to retrorseRetrorse: Turned or pointing backward. to l 300 angle; central Peru; 500- 1,800 m .. .. 📌🔎Anthurium latissimum Engl.
56B. Primary lateral veinVein: Venation types: A. midrib; B. primary lateral veins; C. interprimaray veins; D. secondary veins; E. collective veins; F. tertiary veins; G. basal ribs; H. basal veins. s all ascending.
57A. PetiolePetiole: Leaf stem. s mostly 2- 10-ribbed abaxialAbaxial: Facing away from the stem of a plant (especially denoting the lower surface of a leaf). ly.
58A. SpadixSpadix: A spike of minute flowers closely arranged around a fleshy axis and typically enclosed in a spathe. stipitateStipitate: Having a stalk or stem. 5.5 - 7 cm; leaf blades drying thin; western slopes of Andes in Ecuador; 5 10- 690 m .. 📌🔎Anthurium bucayanum Croat
58B. SpadixSpadix: A spike of minute flowers closely arranged around a fleshy axis and typically enclosed in a spathe. sessileSessile: Attached directly by its base without a stalk or peduncle. or suhsessileSessile: Attached directly by its base without a stalk or peduncle. ; leaf blades dr ying subcoriaceousCoriaceous: Resembling or having the texture of leather. to coriaceousCoriaceous: Resembling or having the texture of leather. .
59A. Primary lateral veinVein: Venation types: A. midrib; B. primary lateral veins; C. interprimaray veins; D. secondary veins; E. collective veins; F. tertiary veins; G. basal ribs; H. basal veins. s fewer than 15 per side: cataphyllCataphyll: A reduced, small leaf. Usually used to describe a modified leaf which lacks a blade and in appearance corresponds to a petiole sheath. s hooked; central Colombia; 900- 1,750 m .. .. 📌🔎Anthurium caucavallense Croat
59B. Primary lateral veinVein: Venation types: A. midrib; B. primary lateral veins; C. interprimaray veins; D. secondary veins; E. collective veins; F. tertiary veins; G. basal ribs; H. basal veins. s more than 15 per side; cataphyllCataphyll: A reduced, small leaf. Usually used to describe a modified leaf which lacks a blade and in appearance corresponds to a petiole sheath. s straight; western slopes of Andes in Ecuador.
60A. Leaf blades less than 20 cm wide: pedunclePeduncle: Flower stem. less than 40 cm long; spadixSpadix: A spike of minute flowers closely arranged around a fleshy axis and typically enclosed in a spathe. less than 10 cm long: western Loja; 1,400- 2,700 m .. 📌🔎Anthurium lennartii Croat
60B. Leaf blades more than 20 cm wide: pedunclePeduncle: Flower stem. more than 40 cm long; spadixSpadix: A spike of minute flowers closely arranged around a fleshy axis and typically enclosed in a spathe. more than 10 cm long; Bolivar and Chimborazo; 1,200- 2,150 m .. 📌🔎Anthurium campii Croat
57B. PetiolePetiole: Leaf stem. s mostly rounded or only I -angled abaxialAbaxial: Facing away from the stem of a plant (especially denoting the lower surface of a leaf). ly.
61A. SpadixSpadix: A spike of minute flowers closely arranged around a fleshy axis and typically enclosed in a spathe. deflexed to reflexed. held at 130- 160" angle from pedunclePeduncle: Flower stem. ; western slopes of Andes in Ecuador: 300- 400 m .. .. 📌🔎Anthurium oxyphyllum Sodiro
61B. SpadixSpadix: A spike of minute flowers closely arranged around a fleshy axis and typically enclosed in a spathe. not deflexed or reflexed, held 180" from pedunclePeduncle: Flower stem. .
62A. Species of the Amazon basin and drainage system.
63A. Leaf blades broadly ellipticElliptic: to broadly ellipticElliptic: with Hat margins: Peru (San Martin) or Venezuela (Amazonas).
64A. Blades epunctatePunctate: Dotted with minute pits or translucent dots. on lower surface; collective veinVein: Venation types: A. midrib; B. primary lateral veins; C. interprimaray veins; D. secondary veins; E. collective veins; F. tertiary veins; G. basal ribs; H. basal veins. s arising from the base of the blade; San Martin. Peru; 400- 500 m .. 📌🔎Anthurium knappiae Croat
64B. Blades conspicuously glandular-punctatePunctate: Dotted with minute pits or translucent dots. on the lower surface; collective veinVein: Venation types: A. midrib; B. primary lateral veins; C. interprimaray veins; D. secondary veins; E. collective veins; F. tertiary veins; G. basal ribs; H. basal veins. s lacking or arising from the uppermost primary lateral veinVein: Venation types: A. midrib; B. primary lateral veins; C. interprimaray veins; D. secondary veins; E. collective veins; F. tertiary veins; G. basal ribs; H. basal veins. s. 420 m Anthurium vinillense Bunting
63B. Leaf mostl y oblanceolateLanceolate: , with conspicuously undulate margins.
65A. Primary lateral veinVein: Venation types: A. midrib; B. primary lateral veins; C. interprimaray veins; D. secondary veins; E. collective veins; F. tertiary veins; G. basal ribs; H. basal veins. s fewer than 10 per side; San Martin, Peru; 130- 750 m .. 📌🔎Anthurium llewelynii Croat
65B. Primary lateral veinVein: Venation types: A. midrib; B. primary lateral veins; C. interprimaray veins; D. secondary veins; E. collective veins; F. tertiary veins; G. basal ribs; H. basal veins. s more than 10 per side; Ecuador to southern Peru; 950- 2,750 m .. 📌🔎Anthurium dombeyanum Brongn. ex Schott
62B. Species occurring on western slopes of Andes in Ecuador .
66A. PedunclePeduncle: Flower stem. more than 3x longer than petiolePetiole: Leaf stem. s; El Oro and Cotopaxi; 2,100- 2,500 m .. .. 📌🔎Anthurium angustilaminatum Engl. subsp. cibuserpentis Croat
66B. PedunclePeduncle: Flower stem. less than 3 x longer than petiolePetiole: Leaf stem. s. SpadixSpadix: A spike of minute flowers closely arranged around a fleshy axis and typically enclosed in a spathe. reddish or purplish at anthesisAnthesis: The period during which pollen is presented and/or the stigma is receptive. .
67A. PetiolePetiole: Leaf stem. s sharply triangular-winged; blades markedly long-attenuate in lower half; terrestrial; 80- 400 m .. .. 📌🔎Anthurium palenquense Croat
67B. PetiolePetiole: Leaf stem. s subtereteTerete: Cylindrical or slightly tapering, and without substantial furrows or ridges. to D-shaped; blades acute or at most abruptly attenuate at base, not markedly longattenuate in lower half of blade; usually epiphyticEpiphytic: A plant that grows harmlessly upon another plant and derives its moisture and nutrients from the air, rain, and sometimes from debris accumulating around it. .
68A. Blades mostly more than l 5 cm wide, less than 7 x longer than wide; central and northern Ecuador; 250- 1,500 m .. 📌Anthurium holmnielsenii Croat
68B. Blades less than l 5 cm wide, more than 7 x longer than wide.
69A. Blades usually pendent , matte and velvety on the upper surface; petiolePetiole: Leaf stem. s tereteTerete: Cylindrical or slightly tapering, and without substantial furrows or ridges. to subtereteTerete: Cylindrical or slightly tapering, and without substantial furrows or ridges. ; Los Rios and Pichincha; 650- 1,200 m .. 📌🔎Anthurium acutissimum Engl.
69B. Blades stiffly erect-spreading, usually semiglossy on upper surface; petiolePetiole: Leaf stem. s sharply D-shaped; widespread in western Ecuador; 50- 1,330 (2,000) m .. 📌🔎Anthurium obscurinervium Croat
70A. Species of the Amazon basin and drainage system.
71A. SpadixSpadix: A spike of minute flowers closely arranged around a fleshy axis and typically enclosed in a spathe. longer than pedunclePeduncle: Flower stem. ; La Paz, Bolivia; 1,000- 1,400 m ..
71B. SpadixSpadix: A spike of minute flowers closely arranged around a fleshy axis and typically enclosed in a spathe. shorter than pedunclePeduncle: Flower stem. .. 📌🔎Anthurium solomonii Croat
72A. Leaf blades with primary lateral veinVein: Venation types: A. midrib; B. primary lateral veins; C. interprimaray veins; D. secondary veins; E. collective veins; F. tertiary veins; G. basal ribs; H. basal veins. s mostly more than 15 per side; occurring mostly above 800 m (origin of Anthurium martianum unknown).
73A. Leaf blades less than 10 cm wide.
74A. Blades less than 2.5 x longer than the petiolePetiole: Leaf stem. s: cataphyllCataphyll: A reduced, small leaf. Usually used to describe a modified leaf which lacks a blade and in appearance corresponds to a petiole sheath. s persisting intact to semi-intact; Peru and Bolivia; 890-l,700m .. 📌🔎Anthurium ottonis K. Krause
74B. Blades more than 2.5 x longer than the petiolePetiole: Leaf stem. s; cataphyllCataphyll: A reduced, small leaf. Usually used to describe a modified leaf which lacks a blade and in appearance corresponds to a petiole sheath. s persisting at a reticulum of pale fibers.
75A. PetiolePetiole: Leaf stem. s subtriangular: spadixSpadix: A spike of minute flowers closely arranged around a fleshy axis and typically enclosed in a spathe. with 5- 7 Rowers visib le per spiral; dried pistilPistil: The female reproductive part of a flower. s protruding well above the tepalTepal: A segment of the outer whorl in a flower that has no differentiation between petals and sepals. s, blackened with pale raphide cells visible; southern Ecuador to Bolivia: 2,200- 2.400 m .. 📌🔎Anthurium soukupii Croat
75B. PetiolePetiole: Leaf stem. s D-shaped; spadixSpadix: A spike of minute flowers closely arranged around a fleshy axis and typically enclosed in a spathe. with 8-11 flowers visible per spiral; dried pistilPistil: The female reproductive part of a flower. s rounded at apexApex: End forming a point. and not emerging above tepalTepal: A segment of the outer whorl in a flower that has no differentiation between petals and sepals. s, yellow-brown and lacking raphide cells; eastern slopes of the Andes in Ecuador (Tunguragua, Pastaza and Morona Santiago); 970- 1,600 m .. 📌🔎Anthurium fasciale Sodiro
73B. Leaf blades more than 10 cm wide.
76A. Leaf blades more than 20 cm wide.
77A. Primary lateral veinVein: Venation types: A. midrib; B. primary lateral veins; C. interprimaray veins; D. secondary veins; E. collective veins; F. tertiary veins; G. basal ribs; H. basal veins. s more than 25 per side; petiolePetiole: Leaf stem. s triangular, acutely angled abaxialAbaxial: Facing away from the stem of a plant (especially denoting the lower surface of a leaf). ly; eastern slopes of Andes in Ecuador; 600- 1.830 m .. 📌🔎Anthurium santiagoense Croat
77B. Primary lateral veinVein: Venation types: A. midrib; B. primary lateral veins; C. interprimaray veins; D. secondary veins; E. collective veins; F. tertiary veins; G. basal ribs; H. basal veins. s fewer than 25 per side; petiolePetiole: Leaf stem. s mostly D-shaped, rounded abaxialAbaxial: Facing away from the stem of a plant (especially denoting the lower surface of a leaf). ly.
78A. Leaf blades about as long as or scarcely longer than the petiolePetiole: Leaf stem. s; blades broadest at or below the middle; pedunclePeduncle: Flower stem. less than 2 x longer than petiolePetiole: Leaf stem. ; origin unknown, said to be from the Guianas .. 📌Anthurium martianum K. Koch & Kolb
78B. Leaf blades much longer than the petiolePetiole: Leaf stem. s; blades broadest above the middle (rarely near the middle); pedunclePeduncle: Flower stem. more than 2x longer than petiolePetiole: Leaf stem. ; Ecuador to southern Peru; (3 70)950- 2,760 m .. .. 📌🔎Anthurium dombeyanum Brongn. ex Schott
76B. Leaf blades mostly less than 20 cm wide.
79A. Leaf blades conspicuously quilted (i.e .. with the leaf tissue conspi cuously raised between the primary lateral veinVein: Venation types: A. midrib; B. primary lateral veins; C. interprimaray veins; D. secondary veins; E. collective veins; F. tertiary veins; G. basal ribs; H. basal veins. s), with primary lateral veinVein: Venation types: A. midrib; B. primary lateral veins; C. interprimaray veins; D. secondary veins; E. collective veins; F. tertiary veins; G. basal ribs; H. basal veins. s ascending and then spreading retrorseRetrorse: Turned or pointing backward. ly at 30- 70' angle; Hucinuco, Peru: 650- 800 m .. .. 📌🔎Anthurium reflexinervium Croat
79B. Leaf blades not quilted, with primary lateral veinVein: Venation types: A. midrib; B. primary lateral veins; C. interprimaray veins; D. secondary veins; E. collective veins; F. tertiary veins; G. basal ribs; H. basal veins. s all ascending.
80A. Primary veinVein: Venation types: A. midrib; B. primary lateral veins; C. interprimaray veins; D. secondary veins; E. collective veins; F. tertiary veins; G. basal ribs; H. basal veins. s prominently and sharply raised on upper surface (even on drying); eastern slopes of Andes in Ecuador and northern Peru; (800)1 ,000- 2.500 m .. 📌🔎Anthurium penningtonii Croat
80B. Primary lateral veinVein: Venation types: A. midrib; B. primary lateral veins; C. interprimaray veins; D. secondary veins; E. collective veins; F. tertiary veins; G. basal ribs; H. basal veins. s not prominently and sharply raised on upper surface.
81A. Leaf blades oblongOblong: ; pedunclePeduncle: Flower stem. less than 3x longer than petiolePetiole: Leaf stem. ; eastern slopes of Andes in Ecuador; 970- 1,600 m .. 📌🔎Anthurium fasciale Sodiro
81B. Leaf blades mostly oblanceolateLanceolate: ; pedunclePeduncle: Flower stem. more than 3x longer than petiolePetiole: Leaf stem. ; Ecuador to southern Peru; 950- 2, 760 m .. 📌🔎Anthurium dombeyanum Brongn. ex Schott
72B. Leaf blades with primary lateral veinVein: Venation types: A. midrib; B. primary lateral veins; C. interprimaray veins; D. secondary veins; E. collective veins; F. tertiary veins; G. basal ribs; H. basal veins. s 15 or fewer per side; occurring mostly below 800 m.
82A. Leaf blades with primary la teral veinVein: Venation types: A. midrib; B. primary lateral veins; C. interprimaray veins; D. secondary veins; E. collective veins; F. tertiary veins; G. basal ribs; H. basal veins. s toward base perpendicular to midrib to retrorseRetrorse: Turned or pointing backward. ; central Peru ; 500- 1.800 m .. 📌🔎Anthurium latissimum Engl.
82B. Leaf blades with primary lateral veinVein: Venation types: A. midrib; B. primary lateral veins; C. interprimaray veins; D. secondary veins; E. collective veins; F. tertiary veins; G. basal ribs; H. basal veins. s all ascending.
83A. Leaf blades over 4 x longer than broad or <=2 x longer than broad.
84A. Leaves spreading-pendent; blades oblongOblong: to oblanceolateLanceolate: , over 4 x longer than broad; Ecuador and adjacent Peru and Colombia; 90- 550 m .. 📌🔎Anthurium pendulifolium N. E. Br.
84B. Leaves erect or spreading; blades ellipticElliptic: to broadly ovateOvate: -ellipticElliptic: or broadly lanceolateLanceolate: , <=2 x longer than broad.
85A. Blades obtuse to rounded or cuneateCuneate: at base; basalBasal: Forming or belonging to a bottom layer or base. veinVein: Venation types: A. midrib; B. primary lateral veins; C. interprimaray veins; D. secondary veins; E. collective veins; F. tertiary veins; G. basal ribs; H. basal veins. s usually l pair, rarely 2 pairs, merging with the margin in the lower 1/4 of the blade; Emma mountains. Surinam; 850m .. 📌🔎Anthurium lanjouwii Jonker & Jonker
85B. Blades shallowly cordateCordate: at base; basalBasal: Forming or belonging to a bottom layer or base. veinVein: Venation types: A. midrib; B. primary lateral veins; C. interprimaray veins; D. secondary veins; E. collective veins; F. tertiary veins; G. basal ribs; H. basal veins. s 3 - 4 pairs, a t least the uppermost joining the margin well near or above the middle of the blade; Cerro Neblina and Cerro Yapacana, Amazonas, Venezuela; 780- 825 m .. 📌🔎Anthurium wurdackii Bunting
83B. Leaf blades mostly between 4 and 2 x longer than broad.
86A. PedunclePeduncle: Flower stem. less than 10 cm long; spadixSpadix: A spike of minute flowers closely arranged around a fleshy axis and typically enclosed in a spathe. less than 5 cm long; leaf blades quilted and velvety; known only from Rio Sucusari, Loreto, Peru; below 200 m .. 📌🔎Anthurium willifordii Croat
86B. PedunclePeduncle: Flower stem. more than 10 cm long at a nthesis; spadixSpadix: A spike of minute flowers closely arranged around a fleshy axis and typically enclosed in a spathe. more than 5 cm long; leaf blades not quilted or velvety.
87A. Geniculum appearing remote from base of blade by 4-11cm; Amazonas, Brazil .. 📌🔎Anthurium krukovii Croat
87B. Geniculum at base of blade, not appearing remote.
88A. Leaf blades mostly more than 40 cm long; western Amazonia; mostly below 500 m.
89A. Blades usually narrowly to broadly oblanceolateLanceolate: , long-attenuate or rarely acute at base .. 📌🔎Anthurium atropurpureum R. Schultes & Maguire var. arenicola Croat
89B. Blades ovateOvate: .ellipticElliptic: , rounded at base (sometimes acutely decurrentDecurrent: Extending down the stem below the point of attachment. onto petiolePetiole: Leaf stem. ) .. 📌🔎Anthurium atropurpureum R. Schultes & Maguire var. thomasii Croat
88B. Leaf blades less than 40 cm long.
90A. Leaf blades broadest near middle, drying pale green; tertiary veinVein: Venation types: A. midrib; B. primary lateral veins; C. interprimaray veins; D. secondary veins; E. collective veins; F. tertiary veins; G. basal ribs; H. basal veins. s etched on upper surface when fresh; northwestern Amazonia; below 160 m.
91A. Blades drying pale gra y-green, less than 14 cm wide, usually less than 12 cm wide, narrowly acute or at least prominently decurrentDecurrent: Extending down the stem below the point of attachment. at base; the spatheSpathe: A large sheathing bract enclosing the flower cluster. inserted at ca . 90 angle on pedunclePeduncle: Flower stem. ; western margin of Amazon basin in Acre, Brazil, and Loreto, Peru; 120- 160 m .. .. 📌🔎Anthurium atropurpureum R. Schultes & Maguire var. atropurpureum
91B. Blades drying dark yellow-green to yellow-brown, more than 12 cm, (usually more than 14 cm) wide, usually obtuse to rounded at base, never narrowly acute or decurrentDecurrent: Extending down the stem below the point of attachment. at base; spatheSpathe: A large sheathing bract enclosing the flower cluster. inserted at ca. 45 angle on pedunclePeduncle: Flower stem. ; Surinam; 850 m .. 📌🔎Anthurium lanjouwii Jonker & Jonker
90B. Leaf blades broadest below middle, drying dark , mostly brown; tertia ry veinVein: Venation types: A. midrib; B. primary lateral veins; C. interprimaray veins; D. secondary veins; E. collective veins; F. tertiary veins; G. basal ribs; H. basal veins. s not etched on upper surface; known only from near Tarapoto, San Martin, Peru .. 📌🔎Anthurium basirotundum Croat
70B. Species of northern and central and Pacific coastal Colombia. western slopes of Andes in Ecuador and northern coastal Peru or eastern coastal Brazil, not occur ring in the Amazon basin or drainage system .
92A. Leaf blades usually less than 15 cm wide.
93A. Primary lateral veinVein: Venation types: A. midrib; B. primary lateral veins; C. interprimaray veins; D. secondary veins; E. collective veins; F. tertiary veins; G. basal ribs; H. basal veins. s near middle of leaf blade more than 2 cm apart.
94A. Terrestrial; leaf blades oblongOblong: -linearLinear: , less than 7 cm wide; coastal Ecuador .. 📌Anthurium liriquifolium Engl.
94B. EpiphyticEpiphytic: A plant that grows harmlessly upon another plant and derives its moisture and nutrients from the air, rain, and sometimes from debris accumulating around it. ; leaf blades oblongOblong: -oblanceolateLanceolate: , more than 7 cm wide; Tumbes, Peru; 600- 800 m .. 📌🔎Anthurium simpsonii Croat
93B. Primary lateral veinVein: Venation types: A. midrib; B. primary lateral veins; C. interprimaray veins; D. secondary veins; E. collective veins; F. tertiary veins; G. basal ribs; H. basal veins. s at middle of leaf blade mostly less than 2 cm apart.
95A. Primary lateral ve ins sharply raised on upper surface (even when fresh); western slopes of Andes in Ecuador ; 2,000- 3,000 m .. 📌🔎Anthurium pallatangense Engl.
95B. Primary lateral veinVein: Venation types: A. midrib; B. primary lateral veins; C. interprimaray veins; D. secondary veins; E. collective veins; F. tertiary veins; G. basal ribs; H. basal veins. s not sharply raised on upper surface.
96A. Leaf blades with margins conspicuously concave toward base; western slopes of Andes in Ecuador ; 150- 300m .. 📌🔎Anthurium palenquense Croat
96B. Leaf blades with margins straight or convex toward base.
97A. PetiolePetiole: Leaf stem. s sharply triangular, mostly more than 16 cm long; western slopes of Andes in Ecuador; 200-1,300m .. 📌🔎Anthurium napaeum Engl.
97B. PetiolePetiole: Leaf stem. s D-shaped, subtereteTerete: Cylindrical or slightly tapering, and without substantial furrows or ridges. or obscurely triangular, mostly less than 16 cm long.
98A. Leaf blades truncate to narrowly rounded at base; Ecuador ; 2, 135- 2,500 m .. 📌🔎Anthurium angustilaminatum Engl. subsp. cibuserpentis Croat
98B. Leaf blades acute to attenuate at base.
99A. Leaf blades mostly more than 50 cm long. 4.5 - 6 .6 x longer than petiolePetiole: Leaf stem. s; spadixSpadix: A spike of minute flowers closely arranged around a fleshy axis and typically enclosed in a spathe. dark purple; Pichincha, Ecuador; ca. 1,200 m .. 📌🔎Anthurium angustilaminatum Engl. subsp. angustilaminatum
99B. Leaf blades mostly less than 50 cm long; 2.5 - 4.5 x longer than petiolePetiole: Leaf stem. s: spadixSpadix: A spike of minute flowers closely arranged around a fleshy axis and typically enclosed in a spathe. maroon to brownish (orange, brown, brown to brownish purple): Carchi, Ecuador, Narino, Colombia: 1,200- 2,600 m .. 📌🔎Anthurium carchiense Croat
92B. Leaf blades usually more than 15 cm wide.
100A. PetiolePetiole: Leaf stem. s triangular or tereteTerete: Cylindrical or slightly tapering, and without substantial furrows or ridges. .
101A. PetiolePetiole: Leaf stem. s tereteTerete: Cylindrical or slightly tapering, and without substantial furrows or ridges. : spatheSpathe: A large sheathing bract enclosing the flower cluster. 2.5- 4 .3 cm wide, erect; fruits dirty white to pale violet: southeastern coastal Brazil; 0- 250 m .. 📌🔎Anthurium coriaceum G. Don in Sweet
101B. PetiolePetiole: Leaf stem. s triangular; spat he 0.4- 2.5 cm wide, reflexed to spreading; fr ui ts dirty white; western slopes of Andes in Ecuador and Colombia.
102A. Leaf blades with margins conspicuously concave toward base; 80- 400 m
102B. Leaf blades with margins straight or convex toward base; 200- 1,300 m
100B. PetiolePetiole: Leaf stem. s usually D-shaped.
103A. Primary lateral veinVein: Venation types: A. midrib; B. primary lateral veins; C. interprimaray veins; D. secondary veins; E. collective veins; F. tertiary veins; G. basal ribs; H. basal veins. s fewer than 20 per side .. 📌🔎Anthurium palenquense Croat
104A. Fruits orange; roots glabrousGlabrous: Smooth. Free from hair or down. and minutely but conspicuously warty; cataphyllCataphyll: A reduced, small leaf. Usually used to describe a modified leaf which lacks a blade and in appearance corresponds to a petiole sheath. s straight; Magdalena, Colombia, near Minca .. 📌🔎Anthurium johnsoniae Croat
104B. Fruits violet-purple; roots pubescentPubescent: With a hairy surface. , not warty; cataphyllCataphyll: A reduced, small leaf. Usually used to describe a modified leaf which lacks a blade and in appearance corresponds to a petiole sheath. s hooked; central Colombia; 900- 1,750m .. 📌🔎Anthurium caucavallense Croat
103B. Primary lateral veinVein: Venation types: A. midrib; B. primary lateral veins; C. interprimaray veins; D. secondary veins; E. collective veins; F. tertiary veins; G. basal ribs; H. basal veins. s 20 or more per side.
105A. Leaf blades rounded to truncate at base, about as long as petiolePetiole: Leaf stem. or rarely twice as long; origin unknown .. 📌Anthurium martianum K. Koch & Kolb
105B. Leaf blades acute to attenuate at base. 2- 8 x longer than petiolePetiole: Leaf stem. .
106A. SpadixSpadix: A spike of minute flowers closely arranged around a fleshy axis and typically enclosed in a spathe. purplish brown, stipitateStipitate: Having a stalk or stem. 2.5 - 3 cm; Manabi. Ecuador ; 450 m .. 📌🔎Anthurium manabianum Croat
106B. SpadixSpadix: A spike of minute flowers closely arranged around a fleshy axis and typically enclosed in a spathe. dark purple to reddish vio let, subsessileSessile: Attached directly by its base without a stalk or peduncle. .
107A. SpadixSpadix: A spike of minute flowers closely arranged around a fleshy axis and typically enclosed in a spathe. more than 30 x longer than thick; leaf blades long-attenuate at base; Narii'io, Colombia; 900- 1,000 rn .. 📌🔎Anthurium narinoense Croat
107B. SpadixSpadix: A spike of minute flowers closely arranged around a fleshy axis and typically enclosed in a spathe. less than 30x longer than thick; leaf blades acute to obtuse or cuneateCuneate: at base; Ecuador; 210-250m .. 📌🔎Anthurium sparreorum Croat
51B. Collective veinVein: Venation types: A. midrib; B. primary lateral veins; C. interprimaray veins; D. secondary veins; E. collective veins; F. tertiary veins; G. basal ribs; H. basal veins. arising from above or near middle of leaf blade or absent.
108A. SpadixSpadix: A spike of minute flowers closely arranged around a fleshy axis and typically enclosed in a spathe. red, reddish, maroon, or purplish to violet-purple.
109A. PedunclePeduncle: Flower stem. less than 5 x longer than petiolePetiole: Leaf stem. .
110A. Species of Amazon basin and drainage system (Brazilian highlands, Bolivia, Paraguay. Argentina).
111A. Leaf blades s 3x longer than broad.
112A. PetiolePetiole: Leaf stem. s mostly subtere te in cross section .
113A. Leaf blades subcordateCordate: at base, thickly coriaceousCoriaceous: Resembling or having the texture of leather. ; pedunclePeduncle: Flower stem. more than 50 cm long.
114A. Leaf blade stipitateStipitate: Having a stalk or stem. , the midrib naked beyond the base of the blade for a distance of up to 5 cm before reaching the geniculum (the geniculum appearing remote), or the blade at least decurrentDecurrent: Extending down the stem below the point of attachment. and the lowermost primary lateral veinVein: Venation types: A. midrib; B. primary lateral veins; C. interprimaray veins; D. secondary veins; E. collective veins; F. tertiary veins; G. basal ribs; H. basal veins. s naked at base for 1.5- 2 cm; Venezuela, Amazonas; 10- 150 m .. 📌🔎Anthurium guanchezii Bunting
114B. Leaf blade not stipitateStipitate: Having a stalk or stem. at base, the geniculum not appearing remote from the base of the blade.
115A. Blade ovateOvate: . 1.5 - 1. 7 x longer than wide, dark glandula r-punctatePunctate: Dotted with minute pits or translucent dots. on lower surface; spatheSpathe: A large sheathing bract enclosing the flower cluster. decurrentDecurrent: Extending down the stem below the point of attachment. for less than I cm; Venezuela. Amazonas; 1,350 m .. 📌🔎Anthurium iramirezae Bunting
115B. Blades ovateOvate: -ellipticElliptic: , 1.9- 2.2 x longer than wide. epunctatePunctate: Dotted with minute pits or translucent dots. ; spatheSpathe: A large sheathing bract enclosing the flower cluster. decurrentDecurrent: Extending down the stem below the point of attachment. for 2- 7 .5 cm; Venezuela, Amazonas; 725- 825 m .. 📌🔎Anthurium wurdackii Bunting
113B. Leaf blades attenuate to obtuse at base, chartaceous to moderately coriaceousCoriaceous: Resembling or having the texture of leather. : pedunclePeduncle: Flower stem. less than 50 cm long.
116A. Blades obtuse to rounded or sometimes cuneateCuneate: at base, never attenuate; Surinam; 850 m .. .. 📌🔎Anthurium lanjouwii Jonker & Jonker
116B. Blades attenuate at base; upper Amazon basin; less than 300 m.
117A. PetiolePetiole: Leaf stem. s less than 25 cm long; geniculum at base of leaf blade; Loreto, Peru; 100- 160 m .. .. 📌🔎Anthurium uleanum Engl. var. nanayense Croat
117B. PetiolePetiole: Leaf stem. s more than 25 cm long; geniculum appearing remote from base of leaf blade by 4- 20 cm; Acre State, Brazil .. 📌🔎Anthurium pranceanum Croat
112B. PetiolePetiole: Leaf stem. s variously shaped in cross section but never subtereteTerete: Cylindrical or slightly tapering, and without substantial furrows or ridges. .
118A. SpadixSpadix: A spike of minute flowers closely arranged around a fleshy axis and typically enclosed in a spathe. longer than pedunclePeduncle: Flower stem. ; infructescence with apicalApical: Of, relating to, or denoting an apex. ca. 1/3 withered: cataphyllCataphyll: A reduced, small leaf. Usually used to describe a modified leaf which lacks a blade and in appearance corresponds to a petiole sheath. fibers fine. hairlike, reddish brown; Peru to Bolivia, Paraguay, and Brazil; 50- 900 m .. 📌🔎Anthurium plowmanii Croat
118B. SpadixSpadix: A spike of minute flowers closely arranged around a fleshy axis and typically enclosed in a spathe. shorter than pedunclePeduncle: Flower stem. : infructescence usually not withered in apicalApical: Of, relating to, or denoting an apex. lh; cataphyllCataphyll: A reduced, small leaf. Usually used to describe a modified leaf which lacks a blade and in appearance corresponds to a petiole sheath. fibers various, usually not fine and hairlike.
119A. Leaf blade broadest at or below middle, up to 4 1 cm long; spadixSpadix: A spike of minute flowers closely arranged around a fleshy axis and typically enclosed in a spathe. less than 15 x longer than thick; known only from vicinity of Tarapoto, San Martin , Peru .. 📌🔎Anthurium basirotundum Croat
119B. Leaf blade broadest above the middle, or if broadest near or below middle, then spadixSpadix: A spike of minute flowers closely arranged around a fleshy axis and typically enclosed in a spathe. more than 15 x longer than thick; leaf blades mostly longer.
120A. SpadixSpadix: A spike of minute flowers closely arranged around a fleshy axis and typically enclosed in a spathe. more than 40 x longer than thick, 3 - 4 mm diam. midway (when dried); known only from Colombia (Vaupes. Amazonas) .. 📌🔎Anthurium vaupesianum Croat
120B. SpadixSpadix: A spike of minute flowers closely arranged around a fleshy axis and typically enclosed in a spathe. less than 40x longer than thick. or if more than 40 x longer than thick, then more than 5 mm diam.
121A. Primary lateral veinVein: Venation types: A. midrib; B. primary lateral veins; C. interprimaray veins; D. secondary veins; E. collective veins; F. tertiary veins; G. basal ribs; H. basal veins. s toward base of leaf blade pe rpe ndicular to retrorseRetrorse: Turned or pointing backward. to l 300 to midrib: central Peru; 500- 1,800 m .. 📌🔎Anthurium latissimum Engl.
121B. Primary lateral veinVein: Venation types: A. midrib; B. primary lateral veins; C. interprimaray veins; D. secondary veins; E. collective veins; F. tertiary veins; G. basal ribs; H. basal veins. s all ascending, never re trorse.
122A. CataphyllCataphyll: A reduced, small leaf. Usually used to describe a modified leaf which lacks a blade and in appearance corresponds to a petiole sheath. s hooked or cucullateCucullate: Resembling a cowl or hood. .
123A. Inflorescence erect-spreading; leaf blades usually matte on upper surface (when fresh); above 400 m (up to 1,800 m) on eastern slopes of Andes in Colombia and Ecuador .. 📌🔎Anthurium harlingianum Croat
123B. Inflorescence pendent to spreading.pendent; leaf blades semiglossy on upper surface (when fresh); western and northern Amazonia; below 300 m.
124A. PedunclePeduncle: Flower stem. 5- 6 x longer than petiolePetiole: Leaf stem. , strictly pendent, 3- 5 mm diam. at anthesisAnthesis: The period during which pollen is presented and/or the stigma is receptive. ; Venezuela in Amazonas and Bolivar, northern Par8 State in Brazil .. 📌🔎Anthurium cataniapoense Croat
124B. PedunclePeduncle: Flower stem. 4- 12 x longer than petiolePetiole: Leaf stem. , spreading to spreading.pendent, 6- 11 mm diam. at anthesisAnthesis: The period during which pollen is presented and/or the stigma is receptive. ; Upper Amazon basin, western Brazil (Amazonas) Peru, Colombia, and Ecuador .. 📌🔎Anthurium loretense Croat
122B. CataphyllCataphyll: A reduced, small leaf. Usually used to describe a modified leaf which lacks a blade and in appearance corresponds to a petiole sheath. s straight, lanceolateLanceolate: .
125A. Leaf blades frequently with glandular punctations and/ or pustules (at least abaxialAbaxial: Facing away from the stem of a plant (especially denoting the lower surface of a leaf). ly); habit mostly terrestrial or epilithic; widespread in Brazil and Colombia, Venezuela, and the Guianas.
126A. SpatheSpathe: A large sheathing bract enclosing the flower cluster. usually withered at anthesisAnthesis: The period during which pollen is presented and/or the stigma is receptive. .
127A. SpatheSpathe: A large sheathing bract enclosing the flower cluster. thin, caducousCaducous: Easily detached and shed at an early stage. , 5 .5- 1 l.5 cm long; western to northeastern Colombia, western Venezuela, Panama; sea level to 1,000 (2,430) m .. 📌🔎Anthurium fendleri Schott
127B. SpatheSpathe: A large sheathing bract enclosing the flower cluster. subcoriaceousCoriaceous: Resembling or having the texture of leather. , not caducousCaducous: Easily detached and shed at an early stage. , 11 - 50 cm long; Trinidad and Tobago, Venezuela, Guianas, Amapa in Brazil; mostly below 500 m .. 📌🔎Anthurium jenmanii Engl.
126B. SpatheSpathe: A large sheathing bract enclosing the flower cluster. not withered at anthesisAnthesis: The period during which pollen is presented and/or the stigma is receptive. .
128A. Stems erect; northern Amazon basin, rarely south of the Rio Amazonas (middle Rio Tocantins).
129A. Leaf blades rounded to subtruncate at base, mostly drying greenish; stipeStipe: A stalk or stem. 15 - 40 mm long; southeastern Colombia, Amazonas, and Bolivar in Venezuela; 75- 380 m .. .. 📌🔎Anthurium bonplandii Bunting subsp. cualrecasii Croat
129B. Leaf blades attenuate to acute or obtuse at base, usually drying brown or yellowish; stipeStipe: A stalk or stem. lacking or to 20 mm long.
130A. Leaf blades usually ellipticElliptic: to broadly ellipticElliptic: ; usually 3 - 6 x longer than petiolePetiole: Leaf stem. ; petiolePetiole: Leaf stem. rarely exceeding 30 cm long; southeastern Colombia, southern Venezuela, northwestern Brazil; mostly below 500 m .. 📌🔎Anthurium bonplandii Bunting subsp. bonplandii
130B. Leaf blades usually oblanceolateLanceolate: to obovateOvate: ; usually about twice as long as the petiolePetiole: Leaf stem. ; Surinam, southern Venezuela; 400- 1,400 m .. .. 📌🔎Anthurium bonplandii Bunting subsp. guayanum (Bunting) Croat
128B. Stem creeping horizontally; Mato Grosso, Goi8s, southern Par8 and RondOnia in Brazil .. 📌🔎Anthurium lindmanianum Engl.
125B. Leaf blades without glandular punctations or pustules; habit mostly epiphyticEpiphytic: A plant that grows harmlessly upon another plant and derives its moisture and nutrients from the air, rain, and sometimes from debris accumulating around it. ; mostly occurring in Peru and Ecuador.
131A. CataphyllCataphyll: A reduced, small leaf. Usually used to describe a modified leaf which lacks a blade and in appearance corresponds to a petiole sheath. s persisting as a skeleton of fine , pale fibers: leaf blades mostly drying green, with primary lateral veinVein: Venation types: A. midrib; B. primary lateral veins; C. interprimaray veins; D. secondary veins; E. collective veins; F. tertiary veins; G. basal ribs; H. basal veins. s conspicuously orangish.
132A. Inflorescence spreading-pendent; pedunclePeduncle: Flower stem. 23- 54 cm long; known only from Pastaza, Ecuador; 300 m .. 📌🔎Anthurium ernestii Engl. var. oellgaardii Croat
132B. Inflorescence erect; pedunclePeduncle: Flower stem. usually 3- 25 cm long; widespread in western Amazonia: below 500 m .. 📌🔎Anthurium ernestii Engl. var. ernestii
131B. CataphyllCataphyll: A reduced, small leaf. Usually used to describe a modified leaf which lacks a blade and in appearance corresponds to a petiole sheath. s persisting semi-intact and brown, with the fibers relatively inconspicuous: leaf blades mostly drying brown, with primary lateral veinVein: Venation types: A. midrib; B. primary lateral veins; C. interprimaray veins; D. secondary veins; E. collective veins; F. tertiary veins; G. basal ribs; H. basal veins. s brownish or yellowish.
133A. Primary lateral veinVein: Venation types: A. midrib; B. primary lateral veins; C. interprimaray veins; D. secondary veins; E. collective veins; F. tertiary veins; G. basal ribs; H. basal veins. s 10 - 23 per side.
134A. EpiphyticEpiphytic: A plant that grows harmlessly upon another plant and derives its moisture and nutrients from the air, rain, and sometimes from debris accumulating around it. : petiolePetiole: Leaf stem. s rounded and unribbed or 3 - 5-ribbed abaxialAbaxial: Facing away from the stem of a plant (especially denoting the lower surface of a leaf). ly; pedunclePeduncle: Flower stem. 21 - 50 cm long; spadixSpadix: A spike of minute flowers closely arranged around a fleshy axis and typically enclosed in a spathe. salmon-pink to pale violet-purple: eastern slopes of Andes in Colombia and Ecuador; 440- 1,800 m .. 📌🔎Anthurium harlingianum Croat
134B. Terrestrial; petiolePetiole: Leaf stem. s 5 - 8 -ribbed abaxialAbaxial: Facing away from the stem of a plant (especially denoting the lower surface of a leaf). ly; pedunclePeduncle: Flower stem. 50- 91 cm long; spadixSpadix: A spike of minute flowers closely arranged around a fleshy axis and typically enclosed in a spathe. dark purple: lmbabura, Ecuador: 900-1,500 m .. 📌🔎Anthurium leonianum Sodiro
133B. Primary lateral veinVein: Venation types: A. midrib; B. primary lateral veins; C. interprimaray veins; D. secondary veins; E. collective veins; F. tertiary veins; G. basal ribs; H. basal veins. s mostly 5 - 10 per side.
135A. Geniculum appearing remote from base of blade by up to 16 cm; petiolePetiole: Leaf stem. s narrowly and obtusely sulcateSulcate: Furrowed; grooved. adaxially with blunt margins; San Martin and Amazonas, Peru; 530-1,160 m .. 📌🔎Anthurium remotigeniculatum Croat
135B. Ceniculum not appearing remote:; petiolePetiole: Leaf stem. s convex to broadly sulcateSulcate: Furrowed; grooved. adaxially with sharp margins.
136A. SpadixSpadix: A spike of minute flowers closely arranged around a fleshy axis and typically enclosed in a spathe. appearing glaucousGlaucous: Covered with a whitish powder or waxy coating. , mostly 18- 50 x longer than broad; Loreto, Peru, and adjacent Colombia. Ecuador, and Brazil: below 550 m .. 📌🔎Anthurium uleanum Engl. var. uleanum
136B. SpadixSpadix: A spike of minute flowers closely arranged around a fleshy axis and typically enclosed in a spathe. not appearing glaucousGlaucous: Covered with a whitish powder or waxy coating. , 6 - 18 x longer than broad: San Martin, Peru; 360- 700 m .. 📌🔎Anthurium tarapotense Engl.
111B. Leaf blades usually more than 3 x longer than broad.
137A. Primary lateral veinVein: Venation types: A. midrib; B. primary lateral veins; C. interprimaray veins; D. secondary veins; E. collective veins; F. tertiary veins; G. basal ribs; H. basal veins. s retrorseRetrorse: Turned or pointing backward. toward base of leaf blade or throughout its length.
138A. Leaf blades to 18 cm wide, obtuse to shallowly cordateCordate: at base, conspicuously quilted, with conspicuously retrorseRetrorse: Turned or pointing backward. , arcuateArcuate: Shaped like a bow; curved. primary lateral veinVein: Venation types: A. midrib; B. primary lateral veins; C. interprimaray veins; D. secondary veins; E. collective veins; F. tertiary veins; G. basal ribs; H. basal veins. s throughout their length: known only from vicinity of Tingo Maria (Huanuco). Peru; 650-800 m .. 📌🔎Anthurium reflexinervium Croat
138B. Leaf blades to 36.5 cm wide. acute to attenuate at base, weakly bullate at most, with conspicuously retrorseRetrorse: Turned or pointing backward. primary lateral veinVein: Venation types: A. midrib; B. primary lateral veins; C. interprimaray veins; D. secondary veins; E. collective veins; F. tertiary veins; G. basal ribs; H. basal veins. s only toward base of leaf blade: central Peru: 500- 1,800 m .. 📌🔎Anthurium latissimum Engl.
137B. Primary lateral veinVein: Venation types: A. midrib; B. primary lateral veins; C. interprimaray veins; D. secondary veins; E. collective veins; F. tertiary veins; G. basal ribs; H. basal veins. s all ascending.
139A. PedunclePeduncle: Flower stem. more than 3 x longer than petiolePetiole: Leaf stem. .
140A. SpadixSpadix: A spike of minute flowers closely arranged around a fleshy axis and typically enclosed in a spathe. pale and appearing glaucousGlaucous: Covered with a whitish powder or waxy coating. .
141A. More than 6 flowers visible in either spiral: western Amazonia: below 550 m .. 📌🔎Anthurium uleanum Engl. var. uleanum
141B. Fewer than 6 flowers visible in either spiral; Loreto, Peru, 100- 160 m .. 📌🔎Anthurium uleanum Engl. var. nanayense Croat
140B. SpadixSpadix: A spike of minute flowers closely arranged around a fleshy axis and typically enclosed in a spathe. usually not pale, not appearing glaucousGlaucous: Covered with a whitish powder or waxy coating. .
142A. SpatheSpathe: A large sheathing bract enclosing the flower cluster. usually withered at anthesisAnthesis: The period during which pollen is presented and/or the stigma is receptive. .. 📌🔎Anthurium uleanum Engl. var. nanayense Croat
143A. Tertiary veinVein: Venation types: A. midrib; B. primary lateral veins; C. interprimaray veins; D. secondary veins; E. collective veins; F. tertiary veins; G. basal ribs; H. basal veins. s prominently etched on upper surface when fresh; western Amawnia; l00- 560 m .. 📌🔎Anthurium atropurpureum R. Schultes & Maguire var. arenicola Croat
143B. Tertiary veinVein: Venation types: A. midrib; B. primary lateral veins; C. interprimaray veins; D. secondary veins; E. collective veins; F. tertiary veins; G. basal ribs; H. basal veins. s not prominently etched on upper surface when fresh.
144A. SpatheSpathe: A large sheathing bract enclosing the flower cluster. thin, caducousCaducous: Easily detached and shed at an early stage. , 5.5 -11 cm long; western-central to northeastern Colombia , western Venezuela, Panama; sea level to 1,000(2,430) m .. 📌🔎Anthurium fendleri Schott
144B. SpatheSpathe: A large sheathing bract enclosing the flower cluster. subcoriaceousCoriaceous: Resembling or having the texture of leather. , not caducousCaducous: Easily detached and shed at an early stage. , 11 - 50 cm long; Trinidad and Tobago, Guianas, Amapa in Brazil; mostly below 500 m .. 📌🔎Anthurium jenmanii Engl.
142B. Spa the not withered at anthesisAnthesis: The period during which pollen is presented and/or the stigma is receptive. .
145A. CataphyllCataphyll: A reduced, small leaf. Usually used to describe a modified leaf which lacks a blade and in appearance corresponds to a petiole sheath. s hook-shaped or cucullateCucullate: Resembling a cowl or hood. .
146A. Inflorescence erect-spreading; leaf blades usually matte on upper surface (when fresh); lower eastern slopes of Andes in Colombia and Ecuador; 440- 1,800 m .. .. 📌🔎Anthurium harlingianum Croat
146B. Inflorescence pendent; leaf blades semiglossy on upper surface (when fresh); in Amazonas and Bolivar, Venezuela, Para in Brazil; below 300 m .. 📌🔎Anthurium cataniapoense Croat
145B. CataphyllCataphyll: A reduced, small leaf. Usually used to describe a modified leaf which lacks a blade and in appearance corresponds to a petiole sheath. s straight , lanceolateLanceolate: .
147A. Leaf blade with tertiary veinVein: Venation types: A. midrib; B. primary lateral veins; C. interprimaray veins; D. secondary veins; E. collective veins; F. tertiary veins; G. basal ribs; H. basal veins. s conspicuously etched on upper surface when fresh; central Peru ; (240)320- 770m .. 📌🔎Anthurium pachylaminum Croat
147B. Leaf blade with tertiary veinVein: Venation types: A. midrib; B. primary lateral veins; C. interprimaray veins; D. secondary veins; E. collective veins; F. tertiary veins; G. basal ribs; H. basal veins. s not conspicuously etched, mostly obsc ure, when fresh.
148A. Peti oles rounded abaxialAbaxial: Facing away from the stem of a plant (especially denoting the lower surface of a leaf). ly.
149A. Primary lateral veinVein: Venation types: A. midrib; B. primary lateral veins; C. interprimaray veins; D. secondary veins; E. collective veins; F. tertiary veins; G. basal ribs; H. basal veins. s 10- 2 1 per side.
150A. PetiolePetiole: Leaf stem. s ca . 8 cm long; leaf blades ca. 5.4 x longer than broad; known only from the Serrania de Cutucti in Morona-Santiago, Ecuador; 1,300 m .. 📌🔎Anthurium bushii Croat
150B. PetiolePetiole: Leaf stem. s 10- 30 cm long; leaf blades usually less than 5 x longer than broad; cent ral Ecuador to southern Peru; 950- 2,760 m .. 📌🔎Anthurium dombeyanum Brongn. ex Schott
149B. Primary lateral veinVein: Venation types: A. midrib; B. primary lateral veins; C. interprimaray veins; D. secondary veins; E. collective veins; F. tertiary veins; G. basal ribs; H. basal veins. s 5- 10 per side.
151A. Leaf blades rounded to subtruncate at base, mostly drying greenish; stipeStipe: A stalk or stem. l 5- 40 mm long; southeastern Colombia, Amazonas and Bolivar in Venezuela; 75- 380 m .. .. 📌🔎Anthurium bonplandii Bunting subsp. cuatrecasii Croat
151B. Leaf blades acute to attenuate at base, mostly drying brown to yellowish; stipeStipe: A stalk or stem. 3- 20 mm long; southeastern Colombia, southern Venezuela, northern Brazil; mostly below 500 m .. .. 📌🔎Anthurium bonplandii Bunting subsp. bonplandii
148B. PetiolePetiole: Leaf stem. s (I )3- 5(8)-ribbed abaxialAbaxial: Facing away from the stem of a plant (especially denoting the lower surface of a leaf). ly.
152A. Primary lateral veinVein: Venation types: A. midrib; B. primary lateral veins; C. interprimaray veins; D. secondary veins; E. collective veins; F. tertiary veins; G. basal ribs; H. basal veins. s 10- 16 per side.
153A. PedunclePeduncle: Flower stem. less than 50 cm long; spadixSpadix: A spike of minute flowers closely arranged around a fleshy axis and typically enclosed in a spathe. 7- 8 cm long; epiphyticEpiphytic: A plant that grows harmlessly upon another plant and derives its moisture and nutrients from the air, rain, and sometimes from debris accumulating around it. ; known only from Pastaza, Ecuador ; 300 m .. 📌🔎Anthurium ernestii Engl. var. oellgaardii Croat
153B. PedunclePeduncle: Flower stem. more than 50 cm long; spadixSpadix: A spike of minute flowers closely arranged around a fleshy axis and typically enclosed in a spathe. over 20 cm long; terrestrial; known only from lrnbabura, Ecuador; 900- 1,500 m .. 📌🔎Anthurium leonianum Sodiro
152B. Primary lateral veinVein: Venation types: A. midrib; B. primary lateral veins; C. interprimaray veins; D. secondary veins; E. collective veins; F. tertiary veins; G. basal ribs; H. basal veins. s 4- 10 per side.
154A. Leaf blades subcoriaceousCoriaceous: Resembling or having the texture of leather. , oblanceolateLanceolate: to oblongOblong: -oblanceolateLanceolate: , without glandular punctations; southern Brazil, Bolivia, Paraguay, northern Argentina; 150-1,700 m .. 📌🔎Anthurium paraguayense Engl. var. paraguayense
154B. Leaf blades mostly coriaceousCoriaceous: Resembling or having the texture of leather. . mostly ellipticElliptic: to broadly ellipticElliptic: , usually with glandular punctations below; southeastern Colombia. southern Venezuela, northern Brazil; mostly below 500 m .. 📌🔎Anthurium bonplandii Bunting subsp. bonplandii
139B. PedunclePeduncle: Flower stem. <= 3 x longer than petiolePetiole: Leaf stem. .
155A. SpadixSpadix: A spike of minute flowers closely arranged around a fleshy axis and typically enclosed in a spathe. pale and appearing glaucousGlaucous: Covered with a whitish powder or waxy coating. .
156A. PedunclePeduncle: Flower stem. 2.5- 9 cm long; spadixSpadix: A spike of minute flowers closely arranged around a fleshy axis and typically enclosed in a spathe. l.7 - 4.7 cm long; leaves quilted and velvety; known only from Rio Sucusari, Loreto, Peru .. 📌🔎Anthurium willifordii Croat
156B. PedunclePeduncle: Flower stem. 14- 38 cm long; spadixSpadix: A spike of minute flowers closely arranged around a fleshy axis and typically enclosed in a spathe. 5- 15 cm long; leaves not quilted or velvety.
157A. More than 6 flowers visible in either spi ral; western Amazonia; below 550 m .. 📌🔎Anthurium uleanum Engl. var. uleanum
157B. Fewer than 6 flowers vis ible in either spiral; Loreto, Peru; 100- 160 m .. 📌🔎Anthurium uleanum Engl. var. nanayense Croat
155B. SpadixSpadix: A spike of minute flowers closely arranged around a fleshy axis and typically enclosed in a spathe. usually not pale, not appearing glaucousGlaucous: Covered with a whitish powder or waxy coating. .
158A. SpatheSpathe: A large sheathing bract enclosing the flower cluster. very thin, usually withered at anthesisAnthesis: The period during which pollen is presented and/or the stigma is receptive. .
159A. Tertiary veinVein: Venation types: A. midrib; B. primary lateral veins; C. interprimaray veins; D. secondary veins; E. collective veins; F. tertiary veins; G. basal ribs; H. basal veins. s prominently etched on upper surface when fr esh; western Amazonia; below 560 m .. 📌Anthurium alropurpureum R. Schultes & Maguire var. arenicola Croat
159B. Tertiary veinVein: Venation types: A. midrib; B. primary lateral veins; C. interprimaray veins; D. secondary veins; E. collective veins; F. tertiary veins; G. basal ribs; H. basal veins. s not prominently etched on upper surface when fresh; western to northeastern Colombia, western Venezuela, Panama; sea level to 1,000(2,430) m .. 📌🔎Anthurium fendleri Schott
158B. SpatheSpathe: A large sheathing bract enclosing the flower cluster. moderately thick, not withered at anthesisAnthesis: The period during which pollen is presented and/or the stigma is receptive. .
160A. SpadixSpadix: A spike of minute flowers closely arranged around a fleshy axis and typically enclosed in a spathe. longer than pedunclePeduncle: Flower stem. ; infructescence with apicalApical: Of, relating to, or denoting an apex. ca. !-1 withered; cataphyllCataphyll: A reduced, small leaf. Usually used to describe a modified leaf which lacks a blade and in appearance corresponds to a petiole sheath. fibers fine, hairlike, reddish brown; Peru to Bolivia, Paraguay and Brazil; 50- 900 m .. 📌🔎Anthurium plowmanii Croat
160B. SpadixSpadix: A spike of minute flowers closely arranged around a fleshy axis and typically enclosed in a spathe. shorter than pedunclePeduncle: Flower stem. , usually much shorter; infructescence usually not withered in apicalApical: Of, relating to, or denoting an apex. 1/3; cataphyllCataphyll: A reduced, small leaf. Usually used to describe a modified leaf which lacks a blade and in appearance corresponds to a petiole sheath. fibers various, usually not fine and hairlike.
161A. Leaf blade with tertiary veinVein: Venation types: A. midrib; B. primary lateral veins; C. interprimaray veins; D. secondary veins; E. collective veins; F. tertiary veins; G. basal ribs; H. basal veins. s conspicuously etched on upper surface when fresh; central Peru; (240)320- 770 m .. 📌🔎Anthurium pachylaminum Croat
161B. Leaf blade with tertiary veinVein: Venation types: A. midrib; B. primary lateral veins; C. interprimaray veins; D. secondary veins; E. collective veins; F. tertiary veins; G. basal ribs; H. basal veins. s not conspicuously etched above, mostly obscure when fresh.
162A. Leaves and inflorescence pendent to spreading-pendent; petiolePetiole: Leaf stem. s usually more than 30 cm long; spadixSpadix: A spike of minute flowers closely arranged around a fleshy axis and typically enclosed in a spathe. more than 20 cm long; Ecuador and adjacent Peru and Colombia; 90- 550 m .. 📌🔎Anthurium pendulifolium N. E. Br.
162B. Leaves and inflorescence erect to erect-spreading; petiolePetiole: Leaf stem. s mostly less than 30 cm long; spadixSpadix: A spike of minute flowers closely arranged around a fleshy axis and typically enclosed in a spathe. mostly less than 20 cm long.
163A. Leaf blades usually with conspicuous glandular punctations (a t least abaxialAbaxial: Facing away from the stem of a plant (especially denoting the lower surface of a leaf). l y).
164A. Leaf blades rounded to subtruncate at base, mostly drying greenish; stipeStipe: A stalk or stem. 15- 40 mm long; southeastern Colombia , Amazonas and Bolivar in Venezuela; 75- 380 m .. 📌🔎Anthurium bonplandii Bunting subsp. cuatrecasii Croat
164B. Leaf blades acute to attenuate at base, mostly drying brown or yellowish; stipeStipe: A stalk or stem. 3 - 20 mm long; southeastern Colombia, southern Venezuela , northern Brazil; mostly below 500 m .. 📌🔎Anthurium bonplandii Bunting subsp. bonplandii
163B. Leaf blades without glandular punctations.
165A. CataphyllCataphyll: A reduced, small leaf. Usually used to describe a modified leaf which lacks a blade and in appearance corresponds to a petiole sheath. s persisting as an intact network of fine, pale fibers; primary lateral veinVein: Venation types: A. midrib; B. primary lateral veins; C. interprimaray veins; D. secondary veins; E. collective veins; F. tertiary veins; G. basal ribs; H. basal veins. s usually drying conspicuously orange on lower surface.
166A. Inflorescence spreading-pendent; pedunclePeduncle: Flower stem. more than 20 cm long; known only from Pastaza, Ecuador .. .. 📌🔎Anthurium ernestii Engl. var. oellg aardii Croat
166B. Inflorescence erect; pedunclePeduncle: Flower stem. usually less than 20 cm long; widespread in western Amazonia; below 500 m .. .. 📌🔎Anthurium ernestii Engl. var. erri estii
165B. CataphyllCataphyll: A reduced, small leaf. Usually used to describe a modified leaf which lacks a blade and in appearance corresponds to a petiole sheath. s persisting semi-intact and brown with us ually incons picuous, mostly coarse fibers; primary lateral veinVein: Venation types: A. midrib; B. primary lateral veins; C. interprimaray veins; D. secondary veins; E. collective veins; F. tertiary veins; G. basal ribs; H. basal veins. s not drying orange.
167A. PetiolePetiole: Leaf stem. s 1- 3-ribbed abaxialAbaxial: Facing away from the stem of a plant (especially denoting the lower surface of a leaf). ly; southern Brazil, Bolivia, Paraguay. northern Argentina; 150- 1,700 m .. .. 📌🔎Anthurium paraguayense Engl. var. paraguayense
167B. PetiolePetiole: Leaf stem. s rounded abaxialAbaxial: Facing away from the stem of a plant (especially denoting the lower surface of a leaf). ly; Brazil, Ecuador, and Peru.
168A. Primary lateral veinVein: Venation types: A. midrib; B. primary lateral veins; C. interprimaray veins; D. secondary veins; E. collective veins; F. tertiary veins; G. basal ribs; H. basal veins. s 10- 20 per side; pedunclePeduncle: Flower stem. 3- 7 x longer than petiolePetiole: Leaf stem. ; central Ecuador to southern Peru; 950- 2,760 m .. 📌🔎Anthurium dombeyanum Brongn. ex Schott
168B. Primary lateral veinVein: Venation types: A. midrib; B. primary lateral veins; C. interprimaray veins; D. secondary veins; E. collective veins; F. tertiary veins; G. basal ribs; H. basal veins. s 6-10 per side; pedunclePeduncle: Flower stem. less than 3 x longer than petiolePetiole: Leaf stem. .
169A. Stem erect; petiolePetiole: Leaf stem. s medially I-ribbed adaxially; epiphyticEpiphytic: A plant that grows harmlessly upon another plant and derives its moisture and nutrients from the air, rain, and sometimes from debris accumulating around it. ; known only from Napo, Ecuador; 600 m .. 📌🔎Anthurium tenaense Croat
169B. Stem usually horizontal and creeping; petiolePetiole: Leaf stem. s flat to slightly sulcateSulcate: Furrowed; grooved. adaxially; terrestrial or epilithic, rarely epiphyticEpiphytic: A plant that grows harmlessly upon another plant and derives its moisture and nutrients from the air, rain, and sometimes from debris accumulating around it. ; Brazil in Mato Grosso, Goias, Para, Rondonia .. 📌🔎Anthurium lindmanianum Engl.
110B. Species of western slopes of Andes, northern Colombia and Venezuela, southeastern coastal Brazil; not occurring in the Amazon basin.
170A. CataphyllCataphyll: A reduced, small leaf. Usually used to describe a modified leaf which lacks a blade and in appearance corresponds to a petiole sheath. s cucullateCucullate: Resembling a cowl or hood. or hook-shaped.
171A. CataphyllCataphyll: A reduced, small leaf. Usually used to describe a modified leaf which lacks a blade and in appearance corresponds to a petiole sheath. s cucullateCucullate: Resembling a cowl or hood. . 1l72a. Blades usually more than 4 x longer than wide, the margins usually sinuate and markedly undulate; pe tioles usually 1 - 4-ribbed abaxialAbaxial: Facing away from the stem of a plant (especially denoting the lower surface of a leaf). ly; inflorescence usually erect-spreading; spadixSpadix: A spike of minute flowers closely arranged around a fleshy axis and typically enclosed in a spathe. reddish to purplish violet, not glaucousGlaucous: Covered with a whitish powder or waxy coating. ; coastal Ecuador and Peru; mostly dry regions. sea level to 890 m .. 📌🔎Anthurium barclayanum Engl.
172A. Blades usually less than 4 x longer than wide, the margins not at all sinuate and only weakly undulate; petiolePetiole: Leaf stem. s rounded abaxialAbaxial: Facing away from the stem of a plant (especially denoting the lower surface of a leaf). ly; inflorescence usually pendent; spadixSpadix: A spike of minute flowers closely arranged around a fleshy axis and typically enclosed in a spathe. pale lavender, glaucousGlaucous: Covered with a whitish powder or waxy coating. ; northern Colombia to Nicaragua; humid to wet regions, sea level to 1,600 m .. 📌🔎Anthurium salviniae Hemsley
171B. CataphyllCataphyll: A reduced, small leaf. Usually used to describe a modified leaf which lacks a blade and in appearance corresponds to a petiole sheath. s hook-shaped.
173A. Primary lateral veinVein: Venation types: A. midrib; B. primary lateral veins; C. interprimaray veins; D. secondary veins; E. collective veins; F. tertiary veins; G. basal ribs; H. basal veins. s departing midrib at 70- 90" angle; pedunclePeduncle: Flower stem. 1- 2 x longer than petiolePetiole: Leaf stem. ; central Colombia; 900-l,750 m .. 📌Anthurium caucauallense Croat
173B. Primary lateral ve ins departing midrib at 40- 50 angle; pedunclePeduncle: Flower stem. 3-6x longer than petiolePetiole: Leaf stem. ; coastal Ecuador; sea level to 400 m .. 📌🔎Anthurium asplundii Croat
170B. CataphyllCataphyll: A reduced, small leaf. Usually used to describe a modified leaf which lacks a blade and in appearance corresponds to a petiole sheath. s straight.
174A. SpatheSpathe: A large sheathing bract enclosing the flower cluster. usually withe red at anthesisAnthesis: The period during which pollen is presented and/or the stigma is receptive. (a t least on dried specimens).
175A. SpatheSpathe: A large sheathing bract enclosing the flower cluster. thin , caducousCaducous: Easily detached and shed at an early stage. . 5.5- 11 cm long; Panama, western to northeastern Colombia, western Venezuela; sea level to 1,000(2,430) m .. 📌🔎Anthurium fendleri Schott
175B. SpatheSpathe: A large sheathing bract enclosing the flower cluster. subcoriaceousCoriaceous: Resembling or having the texture of leather. . not caducousCaducous: Easily detached and shed at an early stage. , 11 - 50 cm long; Trinidad and Tobago. Guianas, Amap3 in Brazil mostly below 500 m .. 📌🔎Anthurium jenmanii Engl.
174B. SpatheSpathe: A large sheathing bract enclosing the flower cluster. not withered at anthesisAnthesis: The period during which pollen is presented and/or the stigma is receptive. .
176A. Primary lateral veinVein: Venation types: A. midrib; B. primary lateral veins; C. interprimaray veins; D. secondary veins; E. collective veins; F. tertiary veins; G. basal ribs; H. basal veins. s 16- 30 per side; leaf blades drying distin ctly green: western slopes of Andes in Ecuador.
177A. PetiolePetiole: Leaf stem. s broadly triangular; 4- 6 flowers visible per spiral; 200- 1,300 m .. 📌🔎Anthurium napaeum Engl.
177B. PetiolePetiole: Leaf stem. s D or U-shaped; usually more than 6 flowers visible per spiral.
178A. PetiolePetiole: Leaf stem. s 15- 38 cm long; leaf blades 46- 90 cm long. 10- 20 cm wide; Los Rios and Cotopaxi, Ecuador; 210- 250 m .. 📌🔎Anthurium sparreorum Croat
178B. PetiolePetiole: Leaf stem. s 7- 15 cm long; leaf blades 90- 125 cm long, 20- 34 cm wide; Esmeraldas, Los Rios and Pichincha. Ecuador; sea level to 400 m .. 📌🔎Anthurium asplundii Croat
176B. Primary lateral vei ns 5- 17 per side: leaf blades mostly drying brown; northern South America to Central America , Cuba, coastal Brazil.
179A. PetiolePetiole: Leaf stem. s C.shapecl , narrowly and deeply sulca te with usually blunt margins adaxially. rounded abaxialAbaxial: Facing away from the stem of a plant (especially denoting the lower surface of a leaf). ly; Brazil in Minas Cerais. Rio de Janeiro and Espirito Santo .. 📌🔎Anthurium solitarium (Vell. Conc.) Schott
179B. PetiolePetiole: Leaf stem. s not C-shaped, usually D-shaped, mostly flattened or shallowly sulcateSulcate: Furrowed; grooved. with sharp margins adaxially, generally flat or 1-several-ribbed abaxialAbaxial: Facing away from the stem of a plant (especially denoting the lower surface of a leaf). ly.
180A. SpadixSpadix: A spike of minute flowers closely arranged around a fleshy axis and typically enclosed in a spathe. more than 15 x longer than thick; northern Venezuela. northwestern Colombia, Curacao; sea level to l,800 m .. 📌🔎Anthurium crassinervium (Jacq.) Schott
180B. SpadixSpadix: A spike of minute flowers closely arranged around a fleshy axis and typically enclosed in a spathe. less than 15 x longer than thick.
181A. PedunclePeduncle: Flower stem. less than 30 cm long; petiolePetiole: Leaf stem. s mostly rounded abaxialAbaxial: Facing away from the stem of a plant (especially denoting the lower surface of a leaf). ly; more than 10 flowers visible in either spiral: northern Colombia and Venezuela, Cuba, to Central America .. 📌🔎Anthurium cubense Engl.
181B. PedunclePeduncle: Flower stem. more than 30 cm long; petiolePetiole: Leaf stem. s prominently 3- 8-ribbed abaxialAbaxial: Facing away from the stem of a plant (especially denoting the lower surface of a leaf). ly; fewer than 10 Rowers visible in either spiral ; northern Colombia (Choco) to Panama .. 📌🔎Anthurium concolor K. Krause
109B. PedunclePeduncle: Flower stem. more than 5 x longer than petiolePetiole: Leaf stem. .
182A. CataphyllCataphyll: A reduced, small leaf. Usually used to describe a modified leaf which lacks a blade and in appearance corresponds to a petiole sheath. s hook -shaped or cucullateCucullate: Resembling a cowl or hood. .
183A. Species occurring in the Amazon basin and on eastern slopes of Andes.
184A. Inflorescence erect-spreading: leaf blades usually matte on upper surface when fresh; on eastern slopes of Andes in Colombia and Ecuador; mostly above 440 m .. Anthurium harli .. 📌g i,anum Croat
184B. lnfforescence pendent to spreading-pendent; leaf blades semiglossy on upper surface when fresh; in western and northern Amazonia; below 350 m.
185A. PedunclePeduncle: Flower stem. 5- 6 x longer than petiolePetiole: Leaf stem. , 3- 4 mm diam.: inflorescence strictly pendent: Amazonas and Bolivar, Venezuela .. 📌🔎Anthurium cataniapoense Croat
185B. PedunclePeduncle: Flower stem. 4- 12 x longer than petiolePetiole: Leaf stem. . 6- 1 I mm diam. ; inflorescence spreading to spreading-pendent; upper Amazon basin, Brazil (Amazonas), Loreto, Peru and adjacent Colombia and Ecuador .. 📌🔎Anthurium loretense Croat
183B. Species occurring in northern Colombia and coastal Ecuador.
186A. CataphyllCataphyll: A reduced, small leaf. Usually used to describe a modified leaf which lacks a blade and in appearance corresponds to a petiole sheath. s hook -shaped, lanceolateLanceolate: : sea level to 400 m.
186B. CataphyllCataphyll: A reduced, small leaf. Usually used to describe a modified leaf which lacks a blade and in appearance corresponds to a petiole sheath. s cucullateCucullate: Resembling a cowl or hood. .. 📌🔎Anthurium asplundii Croat
187A. SpadixSpadix: A spike of minute flowers closely arranged around a fleshy axis and typically enclosed in a spathe. pale lavender, glaucousGlaucous: Covered with a whitish powder or waxy coating. : inflorescence usually pendent; petiolePetiole: Leaf stem. s rounded abaxialAbaxial: Facing away from the stem of a plant (especially denoting the lower surface of a leaf). ly: leaf blades with slightly undulate margins; northern Colombia to Mexico; humid to wet regions, sea level to 1,600 m .. 📌🔎Anthurium salviniae Hemsley
187B. SpadixSpadix: A spike of minute flowers closely arranged around a fleshy axis and typically enclosed in a spathe. reddish to violet-purple not glaucousGlaucous: Covered with a whitish powder or waxy coating. ; inflorescence usuall y erect-spreading; petiolePetiole: Leaf stem. s usually 1- 4-ribbed abaxialAbaxial: Facing away from the stem of a plant (especially denoting the lower surface of a leaf). ly; leaf blades with usuall y strongly undulate margins; dry coastal Ecuador ; sea level to 890 m .. 📌🔎Anthurium barclayanum Cataphylls straight, lanceolate.
188A. Leaf blades conspicuously quilted , with primary lateral veinVein: Venation types: A. midrib; B. primary lateral veins; C. interprimaray veins; D. secondary veins; E. collective veins; F. tertiary veins; G. basal ribs; H. basal veins. s conspicuously retrorseRetrorse: Turned or pointing backward. -arcuateArcuate: Shaped like a bow; curved. ; Hu📌🔎Anthurium reflexinervium Croat
188B. Leaf blades not quilted, with primary lateral veinVein: Venation types: A. midrib; B. primary lateral veins; C. interprimaray veins; D. secondary veins; E. collective veins; F. tertiary veins; G. basal ribs; H. basal veins. s ascending.
189A. Leaf blades usually with conspicuous glandular punctations (at least abaxialAbaxial: Facing away from the stem of a plant (especially denoting the lower surface of a leaf). ly).
190A. Leaf blades rounded to subtruncate at base, mostly drying greenish; stipeStipe: A stalk or stem. 15-40 mm long; southeastern Colombia, Amazonas and Bolivar in Venezuela; 75- 380 m .. 📌🔎Anthurium bonplandii Bunting subsp. cuatrecasii Croat
190B. Leaf blades attenuate to acute or obtuse at base, mostly drying brown or yellowish; stipeStipe: A stalk or stem. 1 - 20 mm long.
191A. Leaf blades usuall y ellipticElliptic: to broadly ellipticElliptic: ; southeastern Colombia, southern Venezuela, northern Brazil; mostly below 500 m.
192A. Blades less than 10 cm wide; petiolePetiole: Leaf stem. s less than 6.5 cm long, sheathed to midway; blade surfaces with reticulateReticulate: Reticulate Venation. veinVein: Venation types: A. midrib; B. primary lateral veins; C. interprimaray veins; D. secondary veins; E. collective veins; F. tertiary veins; G. basal ribs; H. basal veins. s drying prominently raised .. 📌🔎Anthurium vinillense Bunting
192B. Blades more than 15 cm wide: petiolePetiole: Leaf stem. s more than 10 cm long, sheathed no more than 1/3 their length; blade surfaces with reticulateReticulate: Reticulate Venation. veinVein: Venation types: A. midrib; B. primary lateral veins; C. interprimaray veins; D. secondary veins; E. collective veins; F. tertiary veins; G. basal ribs; H. basal veins. s scarcely or not at all evident when dried .. 📌🔎Anthurium bonplandii Bunting subsp. bonplandii
191B. Leaf blades usually oblanceolateLanceolate: to obovateOvate: ; Surinam and southern Venezuela; 400- 1,500 m .. - .. 📌🔎Anthurium bonplandii Bunting subsp. guay aflum (Bunting) Croat
189B. Leaf blades without conspicuous glandular punctations.
193A. SpatheSpathe: A large sheathing bract enclosing the flower cluster. withered and !urning yellow at anthesisAnthesis: The period during which pollen is presented and/or the stigma is receptive. ; Trinidad to Brazil (Amapii ); less than 500 m .. 📌🔎Anthurium jenmanii Engl.
193B. SpatheSpathe: A large sheathing bract enclosing the flower cluster. green to purplish, not withered al ant hesis.
194A. Leaf blades oblongOblong: - linearLinear: . less than 7 cm wide; dry coastal Ecuador .. 📌🔎Anthurium linguifolium Engl.
194B. Leaf blades mostly oblanceolateLanceolate: to ellipticElliptic: or ovateOvate: -ellipticElliptic: , more than 7 cm wide.
195A. Primary lateral veinVein: Venation types: A. midrib; B. primary lateral veins; C. interprimaray veins; D. secondary veins; E. collective veins; F. tertiary veins; G. basal ribs; H. basal veins. s 10- 26 per side.
196A. PedunclePeduncle: Flower stem. more than 6 x longer than petiolePetiole: Leaf stem. s.
197A. Blades ovateOvate: -ellipticElliptic: , rounded to broadly obtuse at base; Serrania de Huanchaca in eastern Bolivia; 750 m .. 📌🔎Anthurium atropurpureum R. Schultes & Maguire var. thomasii Croat
197B. Blades oblanceolateLanceolate: to obovateOvate: , acute to attenuate at base; Guiana Highlands or northern Antioquia.
198A. SpadixSpadix: A spike of minute flowers closely arranged around a fleshy axis and typically enclosed in a spathe. sessileSessile: Attached directly by its base without a stalk or peduncle. ; spatheSpathe: A large sheathing bract enclosing the flower cluster. less than 9 cm long, less than 1.5 cm wide; Antioquia, Colombia; 300- 750 m .. 📌🔎Anthurium anorianum Croat
198B. SpadixSpadix: A spike of minute flowers closely arranged around a fleshy axis and typically enclosed in a spathe. stipitateStipitate: Having a stalk or stem. 1.5- 2.5 cm; spatheSpathe: A large sheathing bract enclosing the flower cluster. more than 9 cm long. more than 1.5 cm wide; Kaieteur Plateau, Guyana; 4 70 m .. 📌🔎Anthurium cowanii Croat
196B. PedunclePeduncle: Flower stem. mostly less than 6 x longer than petiolePetiole: Leaf stem. s.
199A. SpadixSpadix: A spike of minute flowers closely arranged around a fleshy axis and typically enclosed in a spathe. less than 20 x longer than thick at anthesisAnthesis: The period during which pollen is presented and/or the stigma is receptive. ; Ecuador to southern Peru; 950-2,760 m .. 📌🔎Anthurium dombeyanum Brongn. ex Schott
199B. SpadixSpadix: A spike of minute flowers closely arranged around a fleshy axis and typically enclosed in a spathe. more than 20 x longer than thick at anthesisAnthesis: The period during which pollen is presented and/or the stigma is receptive. .
200A. Leaf blades drying subcoriaceousCoriaceous: Resembling or having the texture of leather. and yellowish brown to green: coastal Ecuador ; sea level to 400m .. 📌🔎Anthurium asplundii Croat
200B. Leaf blades drying coriaceousCoriaceous: Resembling or having the texture of leather. and dark brown: eastern slopes of Andes in Colombia and Ecuador: 400- 1,800 m .. 📌🔎Anthurium harlingianum Croat
195B. Primary lateral veinVein: Venation types: A. midrib; B. primary lateral veins; C. interprimaray veins; D. secondary veins; E. collective veins; F. tertiary veins; G. basal ribs; H. basal veins. s mostly 4- 10 per side.
201A. Leaf blades drying grayish to grayish brown: spadixSpadix: A spike of minute flowers closely arranged around a fleshy axis and typically enclosed in a spathe. more than 40x longer than thick: Vaupes and Amazonas in Colombia, adjacent Peru: 130- 250 m .. 📌🔎Anthurium vaupesianum Croat
201B. Leaf blades drying mostly green, yellow.green to brownish: spadixSpadix: A spike of minute flowers closely arranged around a fleshy axis and typically enclosed in a spathe. less than 40 x longer than thick .
202A. PetiolePetiole: Leaf stem. s mostly narrowly and deeply sulcateSulcate: Furrowed; grooved. with blunt margins adaxially, rounded abaxialAbaxial: Facing away from the stem of a plant (especially denoting the lower surface of a leaf). ly.
203A. SpatheSpathe: A large sheathing bract enclosing the flower cluster. usualJy spreading.ascending, coriaceousCoriaceous: Resembling or having the texture of leather. . conspicuously dec urrent on pe. duncle; Rio de Janeiro and Espirito Santo, Brazil .. 📌🔎Anthurium solitarium (Vell. Cone.) Schott
203B. SpatheSpathe: A large sheathing bract enclosing the flower cluster. usually reflexed, subcoriaceousCoriaceous: Resembling or having the texture of leather. . not conspicuously decurrentDecurrent: Extending down the stem below the point of attachment. on pedunclePeduncle: Flower stem. : central Peru: 320-770m .. 📌🔎Anthurium pachylaminum Croat
202B. PetiolePetiole: Leaf stem. s mostly flattened or shallowly sulcateSulcate: Furrowed; grooved. with acute margins adaxially, mostly 1-3-ribbed abaxialAbaxial: Facing away from the stem of a plant (especially denoting the lower surface of a leaf). ly.
204A. Leaf blades ovateOvate: -ellipticElliptic: ; spatheSpathe: A large sheathing bract enclosing the flower cluster. less than 6 cm long; San Martin, Peru .. .. 📌🔎Anthurium basirotundum Croat
204B. Leaf blades oblanceolateLanceolate: to oblongOblong: .oblanceolateLanceolate: ; spatheSpathe: A large sheathing bract enclosing the flower cluster. more than 6 cm long: southern Brazil, Bolivia. Paraguay, and northern Argentina; 150- 1,700 m .. 📌🔎Anthurium paraguayense Engl. var. paraguayense
108B. SpadixSpadix: A spike of minute flowers closely arranged around a fleshy axis and typically enclosed in a spathe. greenish to whitish.
205A. Primary lateral veinVein: Venation types: A. midrib; B. primary lateral veins; C. interprimaray veins; D. secondary veins; E. collective veins; F. tertiary veins; G. basal ribs; H. basal veins. s toward base of leaf blade perpendicular to midrib to retrorseRetrorse: Turned or pointing backward. to 130.
206A. Leaf blades less than 45 cm long; La Paz, Boliv ia: 700- 900 m .. 📌🔎Anthurium paraguayense Engl. var. coroicoarwm Croat
206B. Leaf blades more than 50 cm long: central Peru; 500- 1.800 m .. 📌🔎Anthurium latissimum Engl.
205B. Primary lateral veinVein: Venation types: A. midrib; B. primary lateral veins; C. interprimaray veins; D. secondary veins; E. collective veins; F. tertiary veins; G. basal ribs; H. basal veins. s all ascending, not perpendicular or re trorse to the midrib: widespread in South America.
207A. PedunclePeduncle: Flower stem. less than 3 x longer than petiolePetiole: Leaf stem. .
208A. Species of the Amazon basin and drainage system.
209A. PedunclePeduncle: Flower stem. less than 2 x longer than spadixSpadix: A spike of minute flowers closely arranged around a fleshy axis and typically enclosed in a spathe. .
210A. SpadixSpadix: A spike of minute flowers closely arranged around a fleshy axis and typically enclosed in a spathe. longer than pedunclePeduncle: Flower stem. : infructescence with apicalApical: Of, relating to, or denoting an apex. ca. II .. withered: cataphyllCataphyll: A reduced, small leaf. Usually used to describe a modified leaf which lacks a blade and in appearance corresponds to a petiole sheath. fibers fine , hairlike, reddish brown; Peru to Bolivia . Paraguay and Brazil: 50- 900 m .. 📌🔎Anthurium plowmanii Croat
210B. SpadixSpadix: A spike of minute flowers closely arranged around a fleshy axis and typically enclosed in a spathe. shorter than pedunclePeduncle: Flower stem. ; infructescence usually not withered in apicalApical: Of, relating to, or denoting an apex. Y.J; cataphyllCataphyll: A reduced, small leaf. Usually used to describe a modified leaf which lacks a blade and in appearance corresponds to a petiole sheath. fibers various, usually not fine and hairl ike.
211A. Leaf blades mostly less than 4 x longer than petiolePetiole: Leaf stem. s: spadixSpadix: A spike of minute flowers closely arranged around a fleshy axis and typically enclosed in a spathe. more than 20 x longer than thick .. .. 📌🔎Anthurium uleanum Engl. var. uleanum
211B. Leaf blades mostly more than 4 x longer than petiolePetiole: Leaf stem. s: spadixSpadix: A spike of minute flowers closely arranged around a fleshy axis and typically enclosed in a spathe. less than 20 x longer than thick (mostly much less ).
212A. More than 12 flowers visible in either spiral; spadixSpadix: A spike of minute flowers closely arranged around a fleshy axis and typically enclosed in a spathe. whitish.
213A. SpatheSpathe: A large sheathing bract enclosing the flower cluster. shorter than spadixSpadix: A spike of minute flowers closely arranged around a fleshy axis and typically enclosed in a spathe. ; leaf blades less than 18 cm wide, tinged red to purple below; petiolePetiole: Leaf stem. s less than 10 cm long.
214A. Leaf blades less than 4 x longer than broad; known only from Napo, Ecuador: 200 m .. 📌🔎Anthurium superbum Madison subsp. superbum
214B. Leaf blades more than 4 x longer than broad; known only from Rio Cenepa area , Amazonas, Peru: 200- 300 m .. 📌🔎Anthurium superbum Madison subsp. brentberlinii Croat
213B. SpatheSpathe: A large sheathing bract enclosing the flower cluster. longer than spadixSpadix: A spike of minute flowers closely arranged around a fleshy axis and typically enclosed in a spathe. : leaf blades more than 18 cm wide. not tinged red or purple: petiolePetiole: Leaf stem. s more than 10 cm long; Acre, Brazil and adjacent Peru and Colombia; less than 300 m .. .. 📌🔎Anthurium galactospadix Croat
212B. Mostly fewer than 12 flowers visible in either spiral; spadixSpadix: A spike of minute flowers closely arranged around a fleshy axis and typically enclosed in a spathe. mostl y greenish.
215A. SpadixSpadix: A spike of minute flowers closely arranged around a fleshy axis and typically enclosed in a spathe. appearing glaucousGlaucous: Covered with a whitish powder or waxy coating. ; Madre de Dios, Peru; 700 m .. 📌🔎Anthurium manuanum Croat
215B. SpadixSpadix: A spike of minute flowers closely arranged around a fleshy axis and typically enclosed in a spathe. not appearing glaucousGlaucous: Covered with a whitish powder or waxy coating. .
216A. Cataph ylls persisting as an intact skeleton of fine, pale fibers; primary lateral veinVein: Venation types: A. midrib; B. primary lateral veins; C. interprimaray veins; D. secondary veins; E. collective veins; F. tertiary veins; G. basal ribs; H. basal veins. s conspicuously orange below on drying; pedunclePeduncle: Flower stem. and spadixSpadix: A spike of minute flowers closely arranged around a fleshy axis and typically enclosed in a spathe. erect; widespread in western Amazonia; below 500 m .. 📌🔎Anthurium ernestii Engl. var. ernestii
216B. CataphyllCataphyll: A reduced, small leaf. Usually used to describe a modified leaf which lacks a blade and in appearance corresponds to a petiole sheath. s persisting semi-intact, brown; primary lateral veinVein: Venation types: A. midrib; B. primary lateral veins; C. interprimaray veins; D. secondary veins; E. collective veins; F. tertiary veins; G. basal ribs; H. basal veins. s not drying orange; pedunclePeduncle: Flower stem. spreading, spadixSpadix: A spike of minute flowers closely arranged around a fleshy axis and typically enclosed in a spathe. erect; Pastaza, Ecuador; ca. 1,000 m .. 📌🔎Anthurium curtispadix Croat
209B. PedunclePeduncle: Flower stem. more than 2 x (mostly more than 3 x ) longer than spadi x.
217A. SpadixSpadix: A spike of minute flowers closely arranged around a fleshy axis and typically enclosed in a spathe. usually appearing glaucousGlaucous: Covered with a whitish powder or waxy coating. , or if not appearing glaucousGlaucous: Covered with a whitish powder or waxy coating. , then cataphyllCataphyll: A reduced, small leaf. Usually used to describe a modified leaf which lacks a blade and in appearance corresponds to a petiole sheath. s persisting as an intact network of fine, pale fibers and primary lateral veinVein: Venation types: A. midrib; B. primary lateral veins; C. interprimaray veins; D. secondary veins; E. collective veins; F. tertiary veins; G. basal ribs; H. basal veins. s drying conspicuously orange on lower surface; epiphyticEpiphytic: A plant that grows harmlessly upon another plant and derives its moisture and nutrients from the air, rain, and sometimes from debris accumulating around it. in moist to wet forest life zones; lowland Amazonia.
218A. CataphyllCataphyll: A reduced, small leaf. Usually used to describe a modified leaf which lacks a blade and in appearance corresponds to a petiole sheath. s persisting as an intact network of fine, pale fibe rs; leaf blades usually drying greenish, with primary lateral veinVein: Venation types: A. midrib; B. primary lateral veins; C. interprimaray veins; D. secondary veins; E. collective veins; F. tertiary veins; G. basal ribs; H. basal veins. s usually drying conspicuously orange on lower surface; spadixSpadix: A spike of minute flowers closely arranged around a fleshy axis and typically enclosed in a spathe. not appearing glaucousGlaucous: Covered with a whitish powder or waxy coating. ; widespread in western Amazonia; mostly below 500 m .. 📌🔎Anthurium ernestii Engl. var. ernestii
218B. CataphyllCataphyll: A reduced, small leaf. Usually used to describe a modified leaf which lacks a blade and in appearance corresponds to a petiole sheath. s persisting semi-intact. brown; leaf blades drying brown, with primary lateral veinVein: Venation types: A. midrib; B. primary lateral veins; C. interprimaray veins; D. secondary veins; E. collective veins; F. tertiary veins; G. basal ribs; H. basal veins. s not drying orange.
219A. Leaf blades coriaceousCoriaceous: Resembling or having the texture of leather. , narrowly oblongOblong: -ellipticElliptic: , to 9.5 cm wide, broadest at the middle, drying reddish brown with the tertiary veinVein: Venation types: A. midrib; B. primary lateral veins; C. interprimaray veins; D. secondary veins; E. collective veins; F. tertiary veins; G. basal ribs; H. basal veins. s prominulousProminulous: Especially of the veins of a leaf: slightly prominent. on both surfaces; known only from Napo. Ecuador; 600 m .. 📌🔎Anthurium tenaense Croat
219B. Leaf blades subcoriaceousCoriaceous: Resembling or having the texture of leather. , usuall y oblanceolateLanceolate: and broadest well above the middle or rarely ellipticElliptic: to broadly ellipticElliptic: in Anthurium uleanum var. nanayense (if ellipticElliptic: then usually 11- 16 cm wide), drying greenish to grayish green to brown, but not reddish brown, with tertiary veinVein: Venation types: A. midrib; B. primary lateral veins; C. interprimaray veins; D. secondary veins; E. collective veins; F. tertiary veins; G. basal ribs; H. basal veins. s not prominulousProminulous: Especially of the veins of a leaf: slightly prominent. (or at least never on the upper surface).
220A. More than 6 flowers visible in either spiral; western Amazonia; below 550 m .. 📌🔎Anthurium uleanum Engl. var. uleanum
220B. Fewer than 6 flowers visible in either spiral; Loreto, Peru, 100- 160 m .. 📌🔎Anthurium uleanum Engl. var. nanayense Croat
217B. SpadixSpadix: A spike of minute flowers closely arranged around a fleshy axis and typically enclosed in a spathe. sometimes pale but not appearing glaucousGlaucous: Covered with a whitish powder or waxy coating. ; usually terrestrial or epilithic in mostly drier life zones.
221A. Leaf blades glandular-punctatePunctate: Dotted with minute pits or translucent dots. on lower surface.
222A. Leaf blades less than 5 cm wide, less than 16 cm long; spadixSpadix: A spike of minute flowers closely arranged around a fleshy axis and typically enclosed in a spathe. with stipeStipe: A stalk or stem. less than 5 cm long; Surinam .. 📌🔎Anthurium maguirei A. Hawkes
222B. Leaf blades more than 5 cm wide, more than 16 cm long (usually more than 25 cm); spadixSpadix: A spike of minute flowers closely arranged around a fleshy axis and typically enclosed in a spathe. with stipeStipe: A stalk or stem. more than 5 mm long .. 📌🔎Anthurium bonplandii Bunting subsp. cuatrecasii Croat
221B. Leaf blades not glandular-punctatePunctate: Dotted with minute pits or translucent dots. on lower surface.
223A. Leaf blades mostly more than 5 x longer than broad.
224A. PetiolePetiole: Leaf stem. s Rat to slightly convex adaxially, rounded abaxialAbaxial: Facing away from the stem of a plant (especially denoting the lower surface of a leaf). ly; San Martin, Peru; 130- 750 m .. .. 📌🔎Anthurium llewelynii Croat
224B. PetiolePetiole: Leaf stem. s with prominent medial rib adaxially, 1- 3-ribbed abaxialAbaxial: Facing away from the stem of a plant (especially denoting the lower surface of a leaf). ly; southern Brazil, Paraguay, Bolivia, and northern Argentina; 150 - 1,700 m .. 📌🔎Anthurium paraguayense Engl. var. paraguayense
223B. Leaf blades less than 5 x longer than broad.
225A. Stem erect; pedunclePeduncle: Flower stem. more than 2 x longer than petiolePetiole: Leaf stem. s; San Martin, Peru; 360- 700 m .. 📌🔎Anthurium tarapotense Engl.
225B. Stem usually horizontal, creeping; pedunclePeduncle: Flower stem. mostly less than 2 x longer than petiolePetiole: Leaf stem. s; Brazil in Mato Grosso, Goi3s, Par3., and Rond&nia .. 📌🔎Anthurium lindmanianum Engl.
208B. Species of central and northern Colombia. Venezuela, southeastern Brazil, not occurring in the Amazon basin .
226A. Primary lateral veinVein: Venation types: A. midrib; B. primary lateral veins; C. interprimaray veins; D. secondary veins; E. collective veins; F. tertiary veins; G. basal ribs; H. basal veins. s depart ing midrib at 70- 90 angle; cataphyllCataphyll: A reduced, small leaf. Usually used to describe a modified leaf which lacks a blade and in appearance corresponds to a petiole sheath. s hook-shaped; central Colombia; 900- 1, 750 m .. 📌🔎Anthurium caucavallense Croat
226B. Primary lateral veinVein: Venation types: A. midrib; B. primary lateral veins; C. interprimaray veins; D. secondary veins; E. collective veins; F. tertiary veins; G. basal ribs; H. basal veins. s departing midrib at 30- 70 angle; cataphyllCataphyll: A reduced, small leaf. Usually used to describe a modified leaf which lacks a blade and in appearance corresponds to a petiole sheath. s straight.
227A. Leaf blades with margins prominently undulate; spadixSpadix: A spike of minute flowers closely arranged around a fleshy axis and typically enclosed in a spathe. often broadest near apexApex: End forming a point. ; eastern and southeastern Brazil; sea level to 1,300 m .. 📌🔎Anthurium affine Schott
227B. Leaf blades with margins not prominently undulate; spadixSpadix: A spike of minute flowers closely arranged around a fleshy axis and typically enclosed in a spathe. broadest near base.
228A. Leaf blades with pale raphides visible at low magnification on drying; spatheSpathe: A large sheathing bract enclosing the flower cluster. 2- 6 cm long; spadixSpadix: A spike of minute flowers closely arranged around a fleshy axis and typically enclosed in a spathe. 4- l 2 cm long; northern Venezuela, Curacao; sea level to 600 m .. 📌🔎Anthurium wagenerianum K. Koch & Bouche
228B. Leaf blades without pale raphides visible at low magnification on drying; spatheSpathe: A large sheathing bract enclosing the flower cluster. 8.0- 12.5 cm long; spadixSpadix: A spike of minute flowers closely arranged around a fleshy axis and typically enclosed in a spathe. 12-33 cm long, northern Venezuela , northwestern Colombia, Curac;ao; sea level to l,800 m .. 📌Anthurium crassinvervium (Jacq.) Schott
207B. PedunclePeduncle: Flower stem. >= 3 x longer than petiolePetiole: Leaf stem. .
229A. CataphyllCataphyll: A reduced, small leaf. Usually used to describe a modified leaf which lacks a blade and in appearance corresponds to a petiole sheath. s cucullateCucullate: Resembling a cowl or hood. or hooked.
230A. CataphyllCataphyll: A reduced, small leaf. Usually used to describe a modified leaf which lacks a blade and in appearance corresponds to a petiole sheath. s hook-shaped and lanceolateLanceolate: ; Colombia; 900- 1.750 m .. 📌🔎Anthurium caucavallense Croat
230B. CataphyllCataphyll: A reduced, small leaf. Usually used to describe a modified leaf which lacks a blade and in appearance corresponds to a petiole sheath. s cucullateCucullate: Resembling a cowl or hood. , moderately broad, not at all lanceolateLanceolate: .
231A. SpadixSpadix: A spike of minute flowers closely arranged around a fleshy axis and typically enclosed in a spathe. pale lavender at anthesisAnthesis: The period during which pollen is presented and/or the stigma is receptive. , glaucousGlaucous: Covered with a whitish powder or waxy coating. ; inflorescence usually pendent; petiolePetiole: Leaf stem. s rounded abaxialAbaxial: Facing away from the stem of a plant (especially denoting the lower surface of a leaf). ly; leaf blades with slightly undulate margins; northern Colombia to Mexico; humid to wet regions. sea level to 1,600 m .. 📌🔎Anthurium salviniae Hemsley
231B. SpadixSpadix: A spike of minute flowers closely arranged around a fleshy axis and typically enclosed in a spathe. reddish to violet-purple, not glaucousGlaucous: Covered with a whitish powder or waxy coating. ; inflorescence usually erect-spreading; petiolePetiole: Leaf stem. s usually 1- 4-ribbed abaxialAbaxial: Facing away from the stem of a plant (especially denoting the lower surface of a leaf). ly. leaf blades with usually strongly undulate margins; dry coastal Ecuador and Peru; sea level to 890 m .. .. 📌🔎Anthurium barclayanum Engl.
229B. CataphyllCataphyll: A reduced, small leaf. Usually used to describe a modified leaf which lacks a blade and in appearance corresponds to a petiole sheath. s straight, lanceolateLanceolate: .
232A. Species of the Amazon basin and drainage system.